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Estudos Clínicos

Estão apresentados abaixo alguns resumos dos estudos clínicos sobre Holy Basil.

  • Nome Botânico: Ocimum Tenuiflorum

  • Nome Ayurvédico: Tulasi

  • Nome Comum: Holy Basil

Ocimum Tenuiflorum

Perfil Fitonutriente da Planta


1: J AOAC Int. 2006 Nov/​Dec;89(6):1467/​74.

Quantification of eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid in black
(Krishna Tulasi) and green (Sri Tulasi) varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. using
high/​performance thin/​layer chromatography.

Anandjiwala S, Kalola J, Rajani M.

B.V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre,
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Department, Thaltej, Ahmedabad/​380 054,
Gujarat, India.

Ocimum sanctum (family Lamiaceae) is a reputed drug of Ayurveda, commonly known
as Tulasi. In the present work, we quantified 4 marker compounds, viz., eugenol,
luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, from the leaf of green and black
varieties of O. sanctum using high/​performance thin/​layer chromatography (HPTLC)
with densitometry. The methods were found to be precise, with relative standard
deviation (RSD) values for intraday analyses in the range of 0.52 to 0.91%, 0.77
to 1.29%, 0.11 to 0.16%, and 0.34 to 0.42% and for interday analyses in the
range of 0.73 to 0.96%, 1.02 to 2.08%, 0.11 to 0.12%, and 0.39 to 0.64% for
different concentrations of eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid,
respectively. Instrumental RSD values were 0.24, 0.39, 0.21, and 0.18% for
eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, respectively. Accuracy of
the methods was checked by conducting a recovery study at 3 different levels for
the 4 compounds, and the average recoveries were found to be 99.73, 99.3,
100.58, and 100.57%, respectively. Eugenol content ranged from 0.175 to 0.362%
(w/w) and luteolin from 0.019 to 0.046% (w/w) in the samples analyzed. Green
variety was found to contain higher amounts of ursolic acid [0.478 and 0.348%
(w/w), from Sources 1 and 2, respectively] than the black variety [0.252 and
0.264% (w/w) from Sources 1 and 2, respectively]. Black variety had 0.174 and
0.218% (w/w) of oleanolic acid from Sources 1 and 2, respectively, while it was
not detected in the green variety. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid ran at the
same Rf value and could not be resolved in several solvent systems tried.
However, we observed that only ursolic acid gave yellow fluorescence under 366
nm ultraviolet light after derivatization with anisaldehyde/​sulfuric acid
reagent. The HPTLC/​densitometry methods for the quantification of the 4 markers
in O. sanctum leaf will have the applicability in quality control.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17225591 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Dec;33(12):1150/​7.

Biochemical evaluation of antidiabetogenic properties of some commonly used
Indian plants on streptozotocin/​induced diabetes in experimental rats.

Narendhirakannan RT, Subramanian S, Kandaswamy M.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Chennai, India.

1. Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disorder with micro/​ and
macrovascular complications that results in significant morbidity and mortality.
2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypoglycaemic efficacy of
commonly used traditional Indian plants, such as Murraya koenigii, Mentha
piperitae, Ocimum sanctum and Aegle marmelos, in streptozotocin (STZ)/​induced
experimental rats. 3. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract of these
plants resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood glucose,
glycosylated haemoglobin and urea, with a concomitant increase in glycogen,
haemoglobin and protein, in diabetic rats. Treatment with these plant extracts
also resulted in an increase in insulin and C/​peptide levels and glucose
tolerance. 4. The decreased activities of carbohydrate/​metabolising enzymes,
such as hexokinase, glucose/​6/​phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen synthase, in
diabetic rats were significantly elevated towards near normal in rats treated
with extracts of M. koenigii, O. sanctum and A. marmelos; the increased
activities of lactate dehydrogenase, fructose/​1,6/​bisphosphatase,
glucose/​6/​phosphatase and glycogen phosphorylase in STZ diabetic rats were
significantly reduced following treatment with the plant extracts. 5. Elevated
specific binding of [(125)I]/​labelled insulin to the receptor found in diabetic
rats was markedly decreased in extract/​treated groups. However, treatment of
diabetic rats with M. piperitae did not result in any significant modification
in all parameters. 6. Phytochemical screening conducted by us revealed the
presence of biologically active ingredients in the ethanolic extracts of M.
koenigii, O. sanctum and A. marmelos, which may readily account for the observed
hypoglycaemic activity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17184494 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Apr/​Jun;50(2):163/​8.

Wound healing activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn with supportive role of
antioxidant enzymes.

Shetty S, Udupa S, Udupa L, Somayaji N.

Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal 576 104.
somashekarshetty@yahoo.com

The present study was performed to evaluate the wound healing and antioxidant
effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (O. sanctum) in rats. Albino
rats of either sex were divided into 2 groups. Group I: Wounded control rats;
Group II: Wounded rats administered O. sanctum aqueous extract. Wound breaking
strength in incision wound model, epithelization period and percent wound
contraction in excision wound model were studied. Using dead space wound model,
granulation tissue breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight,
hydoxyproline level in dry granulation tissue, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
catalase levels in wet granulation tissue were estimated in both the groups.
Increased wound breaking strength, decreased epithelization period, increased
percent wound contraction, increased granulation tissue weight and
hydroxyproline concentrations were observed. The increased activity of
antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase level in extract treated group
compared to controls. Granulation tissue was subjected to histopathological
examination to determine the pattern of lay/​down for collagen using Haematoxylin
and Eosin stains which confirm the results. Owing to wound healing and
antioxidant activities, O. sanctum may be useful in the management of abnormal
healing such as keloids and hypertrophic scars.

PMID: 17051736 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Int J Oncol. 2006 Nov;29(5):1269/​78.

Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented
expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous
extracts of several Indian medicinal plants.

Niture SK, Rao US, Srivenugopal KS.

Center for Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech
University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA.

O6/​alkylguanines are potent mutagenic, pro/​carcinogenic and cytotoxic lesions
induced by exogenous and endogenous alkylating agents. A facilitated elimination
of these lesions by increasing the activity of O6/​methylguanine/​DNA
methyltransferase (MGMT) is likely to be a beneficial chemoprevention strategy,
which, however, has not been examined. Because, a marginal enhancement of this
protein may be adequate for genomic protection, we studied alterations in MGMT
activity and expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cancer cell
lines induced by water/​soluble and alcohol/​soluble constituents of several
plants with established antioxidant and medicinal properties. Both the ethanolic
and aqueous extracts from neem (Azadirachta indica), holy basil (Ocimum
sanctum), winter cherry (Withania somnifera), and oregano (Origanum majorana)
increased the levels of MGMT protein and its demethylation activity in a
time/​dependent manner with a maximum of 3/​fold increase after 72/​h treatment.
The extracts from gooseberry (Emblica officinalis), common basil (Ocimum
basilicum), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) were relatively less efficient in
raising MGMT levels. Increased levels of MGMT mRNA accounted at least, in part,
for the increased activity of the DNA repair protein. The herbal treatments also
increased glutathione S/​transferase/​pi (GSTP1) expression, albeit to a lesser
extent than MGMT. These data provide the first evidence for the upregulation of
human MGMT by plant constituents and raise the possibility of rational dietary
approaches for attenuating alkylation/​induced carcinogenesis. Further, they
reveal the putative antioxidant responsiveness of the MGMT gene in human cells.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17016661 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

5: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Dec 6;108(3):423/​7. Epub 2006 Jul 1.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on cardiac changes in rats subjected to chronic
restraint stress.

Sood S, Narang D, Thomas MK, Gupta YK, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
110029, India.

Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS; 6 h/day for 21
days) alone or along with either hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Os;
100 mg/kg; orally) or MK/​801, an NMDA receptor antagonist (0.3 mg/kg; i.p.). In
the rats subjected to only CRS, plasma cAMP level was significantly raised on
day 21, with no significant change in plasma corticosterone level. There was a
significant (p < 0.05) fall in myocardial glutathione level, along with a
significant (p < 0.05) rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
catalase activities, while light microscopy showed evidence of myocardial edema.
Both Os and MK/​801 significantly prevented the CRS/​induced rise in plasma cAMP
level, myocardial SOD and catalase activities as well as the light microscopic
changes in the myocardium. This study revealed that Ocimum sanctum protects rat
heart from chronic restraint stress induced changes, through its central effect.

PMID: 16965878 [PubMed /​ in process]

6: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Aug;44(8):647/​52.

Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum L after high/​dose 131iodine exposure in
mice: an in vivo study.

Bhartiya US, Raut YS, Joseph LJ.

Laboratory Nuclear Medicine Section, Radiochemistry & Isotope Group, BARC, C/O
Tata Memorial Hospital Annexe, Parel, Mumbai, India. umapat@yahoo.com

Radioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (40 mg/kg body
weight, for 15 days) in mice exposed to high/​doses (3.7 MBq) of oral 131iodine
was investigated by studying the organ weights, lipid peroxidation and
antioxidant defense enzymes in various target organs like liver, kidneys,
salivary glands and stomach at 24 hr after exposure in adult Swiss mice. The
mean weight of the salivary glands showed significant increase after 131iodine
administration. 131iodine exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation in
kidneys and salivary glands in comparison to control animals. Pretreatment with
O. sanctum in radioiodine exposed group showed significant reduction in lipid
peroxidation in both kidneys and salivary glands. In liver, reduced glutathione
(GSH) levels showed significant reduction after radioiodine exposure while
pretreatment with O. sanctum exhibited less depletion in GSH level even after
131iodine exposure. However, no such changes were observed in stomach. The
results indicate the possibility of using aqueous extract of O. sanctum for
ameliorating 131Iodine induced damage to the salivary glands.

PMID: 16924835 [PubMed /​ in process]

7: J Environ Biol. 2006 Jan;27(1):93/​5.

In vivo studies on the effect of Ocimum sanctum L. leaf extract in modifying the
genotoxicity induced by chromium and mercury in Allium root meristems.

Babu K, Uma Maheswari KC.

R & D Centre, Cholayil Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Ambattur, Chennai/​600 098,
India.

In vivo cytogenetic assay in Allium cepa root tip cells has been carried out to
detect the modifying effect of Ocimum sanctum aqueous leaf extract against
chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) induced genotoxicity. It was observed that the
roots post/​treated with the leaf extract showed highly significant (p < 0.001)
recovery in mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) when compared to
pre/​treated (Cr/Hg) samples and the lower doses of the leaf extract were found
to be more effective than higher doses. The present study reveals that the
Ocimum sanctum leaf extract possesses the protective effect against Cr/Hg
induced genetic damage.

PMID: 16850883 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Med Chem. 2005 Jul;1(4):327/​33.

Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts inhibiting molecular interactions between
nuclear factors and target DNA sequences mimicking NF/​kappaB binding sites.

Lampronti I, Khan MT, Bianchi N, Ather A, Borgatti M, Vizziello L, Fabbri E,
Gambari R.

ER/​GenTech, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ferrara
University, Via L. Borsari, 46, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.

Several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting
biological effects. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of extracts
derived from different medicinal plants of Bangladesh in interfering with
specific DNA/​protein interactions. The rationale for this study is based on the
observation that alteration of gene transcription represents a very promising
approach to control the expression of selected genes and could be obtained using
different molecules acting on the interactions between DNA and transcription
factors (TFs). We have analysed the antiproliferative activity of extracts from
the medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Aphanamixis
polystachya, Moringa oleifera, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Paederia foetida, Cassia
sophera, Hygrophila auriculata and Ocimum sanctum. Antiproliferative activity
was assayed on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562,
B/​lymphoid Raji, T/​lymphoid Jurkat and erythroleukemia HEL cell lines. We
employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) as a suitable technique
for the identification of plant extracts altering the binding between
transcription factors and the specific DNA elements. We found that low
concentrations of Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Moringa oleifera
and Lagerstroemia speciosa, and very low concentrations of Aphanamixis
polystachya extracts inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target
DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB
(NF/​kappaB). On the contrary, high amount of extracts from Paederia foetida,
Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata or Ocimum sanctum were unable to inhibit
NF/​kappaB/DNA interactions. Extracts inhibiting both NF/​kappaB binding activity
and tumor cell growth might be a source for anti/​tumor compounds, while extracts
inhibiting NF/​kappaB/DNA interactions with lower effects on cell growth, could
be of interest in the search of compounds active in inflammatory diseases, for
which inhibition of NF/​kappaB binding activity without toxic effects should be
obtained.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16789890 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

9: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jun 14;54(12):4378/​82.

Characterization of the volatile pattern and antioxidant capacity of essential
oils from different species of the genus Ocimum.

Trevisan MT, Vasconcelos Silva MG, Pfundstein B, Spiegelhalder B, Owen RW.

Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center,
Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D/​69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The antioxidant capacity of essential oils obtained by steam hydrodistillation
from five species of the genus Ocimum, namely Ocimum basilicum var.
purpurascens, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum micranthum, and
Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum), were evaluated using a high/​performance
liquid chromatography/​based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and the DPPH assays.
The yield of oils from the leaves of the five species was variable with the
greater amount obtained from Ocimum gratissimum (3.5%) and the least from Ocimum
basilicum var. purpurascens (0.5%). In the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay,
strong antioxidant capacity was evident in all the oils but the greater was
shown by that obtained from Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) (IC50 = 0.46
microL/mL) compared to Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (IC50 = 1.84
microL/mL). Antioxidant capacity was positively correlated (r = 0.92, p < 0.05)
with a high proportion of compounds possessing a phenolic ring such as eugenol,
while a strong negative correlation (r = /​0.77, p > 0.1) with other major
volatiles was observed. These correlations were confirmed to a large extent in
the DPPH assay. The results of a 24 h experiment with Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn.
O. sanctum) shows that the antioxidant capacity factor (amount of essential oil
obtained x free radical scavenging capacity; mg x %/100) reaches a threshold
between 10 and 12.00 h, corresponding to maximum sunlight intensity in Brasil
and furthermore exhibits a clear diurnal variation. The data generated with
Ocimum species indicates that essential oils obtained from various herbs and
spices may have an important role to play in cancer chemoprevention, functional
foods, and in the preservation of pharmacologic products.

PMID: 16756370 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Apr;44(4):300/​4.

Antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum
(Linn) seed oil.

Gupta S, Mediratta PK, Singh S, Sharma KK, Shukla R.

Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Science and GTB
Hospital, Shahdara, Delhi, India.

Antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. seed oil
(OSSO) was investigated in rabbits. Administration of OSSO (0.8 g/kg body
weight/day) for four weeks, in cholesterol (100 mg/kg body weight/day) fed
rabbits significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and
LDL/​+VLDL/​cholesterol as compared to untreated cholesterol fed group. There was
significant fall in atherogenic index in OSSO treated group. In addition,
treatment with OSSO decreased lipid peroxidation and increased reduced
glutathione content in blood. Antidiabetic effect of O. sanctum seed oil was
evaluated in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Two weeks treatment of diabetic rabbits
with OSSO (0.8 gm/kg/day) showed no significant hypoglycaemic effect. Results of
the present study show that OSSO has hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant
effects but it does not have antidiabetic effect.

PMID: 16629372 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

11: J Endocrinol. 2006 Apr;189(1):127/​36.

Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts stimulate insulin secretion from perfused pancreas,
isolated islets and clonal pancreatic beta/​cells.

Hannan JM, Marenah L, Ali L, Rokeya B, Flatt PR, Abdel/​Wahab YH.

Diabetes Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster,
Coleraine, Northern Ireland BT52 1SA, UK.

Ocimum sanctum leaves have previously been reported to reduce blood glucose when
administered to rats and humans with diabetes. In the present study, the effects
of ethanol extract and five partition fractions of O. sanctum leaves were
studied on insulin secretion together with an evaluation of their mechanisms of
action. The ethanol extract and each of the aqueous, butanol and ethylacetate
fractions stimulated insulin secretion from perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat
islets and a clonal rat beta/​cell line in a concentration/​dependent manner. The
stimulatory effects of ethanol extract and each of these partition fractions
were potentiated by glucose, isobutylmethylxanthine, tolbutamide and a
depolarizing concentration of KCl. Inhibition of the secretory effect was
observed with diazoxide, verapamil and Ca2+ removal. In contrast, the
stimulatory effects of the chloroform and hexane partition fractions were
associated with decreased cell viability and were unaltered by diazoxide and
verapamil. The ethanol extract and the five fractions increased intracellular
Ca2+ in clonal BRIN/​BD11 cells, being partly attenuated by the addition of
verapamil. These findings indicated that constituents of O. sanctum leaf
extracts have stimulatory effects on physiological pathways of insulin secretion
which may underlie its reported antidiabetic action.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16614387 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

12: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Feb 19;6:3.

Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in
experimentally induced myocardial ischemic/​reperfusion injury.

Mohanty I, Arya DS, Gupta SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi/​110029, India. ipseetamohanty@yahoo.co.in

BACKGROUND: In the present investigation, the effect of Curcuma longa (Cl) and
Ocimum sanctum (Os) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in
an ischemia and reperfusion (I/​R) model of myocardial injury. METHODS: Wistar
albino rats were divided into four groups and orally fed saline once daily
(sham, control IR) or Cl (100 mg/kg; Cl/​IR) or Os (75 mg/kg; Os/​IR) respectively
for 1 month. On the 31st day, in the rats of the control IR, Cl/​IR and Os/​IR
groups LAD occlusion was undertaken for 45 min, and reperfusion was allowed for
1 h. The hemodynamic parameters{mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR),
left ventricular end/​diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular peak positive
(+) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure development) and negative (/​) LVdP/dt (rate of
pressure decline)} were monitored at pre/​set points throughout the experimental
duration and subsequently, the animals were sacrificed for
immunohistopathological (Bax, Bcl/​2 protein expression & TUNEL positivity) and
histopathological studies. RESULTS: Chronic treatment with Cl significantly
reduced TUNEL positivity (p < 0.05), Bax protein (p < 0.001) and upregulated
Bcl/​2 (p < 0.001) expression in comparison to control IR group. In addition, Cl
demonstrated mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced hemodynamic
{(+)LVdP/dt, (/​) LVdP/dt & LVEDP} and histopathological perturbations. Chronic
Os treatment resulted in modest modulation of the hemodynamic alterations (MAP,
LVEDP) but failed to demonstrate any significant antiapoptotic effects and
prevent the histopathological alterations as compared to control IR group.
CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant cardioprotection and functional
recovery demonstrated by Cl may be attributed to its anti/​apoptotic property. In
contrast to Os, Cl may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the
impairment of cardiac performance.

PMID: 16504000 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Feb;44(2):133/​6.

Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice.

Joshi H, Parle M.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar,
India. amanjoshi17@yahoo.com

Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom
of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Certain
drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in
animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now
used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The
present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a
nootropic and anti/​amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant
of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg),
diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze
and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O.
sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when
compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice
significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of
cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Evaluation Studies

PMID: 16480180 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Jan;44(1):49/​54.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on normal and dexamethasone suppressed wound
healing.

Udupa SL, Shetty S, Udupa AL, Somayaji SN.

Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 104, India.
s_udupa@yahoo.com

Ethanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum was investigated for normal wound
healing and dexamethasone depressed healing using incision, excision and dead
space wound models in albino rats. The extract of O. sanctum significantly
increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model. The extract
treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster and the rate of wound
contraction was significantly increased as compared to control wounds.
Significant increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight, granulation
tissue breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wound model
was observed. The extract significantly decreased the antihealing activities of
dexamethasone in all the wound models. The results indicated that the leaf
extract promotes wound healing significantly and able to overcome the wound
healing suppressing action of dexamethasone. Histological examination of
granulation tissue to determine the pattern of lay/​down for collagen confirmed
the results.

PMID: 16430091 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jan;83(1):67/​75. Epub 2006 Jan 19.

Biogenic amine changes in brain regions and attenuating action of Ocimum
sanctumin noise exposure.

Samson J, Sheela Devi R, Ravindran R, Senthilvelan M.

Department of Physiology, ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University
of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India. drjsamson@hotmail.com

Broadband white noise exposure (100 dB) in wistar strain male albino rats
significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5/​HT) and 5/​HT
turnover in many of the discrete brain regions (cerebral cortex, cerebellum,
hypothalamus, hippocampus, pons/​medulla and corpus striatum) during sub/​chronic
noise exposure (4 h daily for 15 days). In acute (4 h for 1 day) and chronic
noise exposures (4 h daily for 30 days) the levels were significantly altered
only in certain regions. The turnover study of serotonin clearly indicates that
neurotransmitter level alone cannot be an indicator, as in some brain regions
the rate of synthesis matched with the degradation in order to maintain the
normal levels. The intraperitoneal administration of 70% ethanolic extract of
Ocimum sanctum(OS) at the dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight to animals subjected
to noise exposure has prevented the noise induced increase in neurotransmitter
levels without affecting the normal levels. This indicates that OS can be a
probable herbal remedy for noise induced biogenic amine alterations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16427690 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Redox Rep. 2005;10(5):257/​64.

Antioxidant and radioprotective properties of an Ocimum sanctum polysaccharide.

Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S.

Bio/​Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
schatt@apsara.barc.ernet.in

The antioxidant activity of two polysaccharides isolated from the Indian
medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum and Tinospora malabarica, was studied. Only the
O. sanctum polysaccharide (OSP) showed significant activity. OSP could prevent
oxidative damage to liposomal lipids and plasmid DNA induced by various oxidants
such as iron, AAPH and gamma/​radiation, besides scavenging important ROS such as
the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide and inhibiting xanthine oxidase. In
addition, OSP could prevent gamma/​radiation/​mediated cell deaths in mouse
splenocytes.

PMID: 16354414 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Sep;43(9):835/​7.

Antibacterial activity of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil.

Singh S, Malhotra M, Majumdar DK.

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, University of Delhi,
Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110 017, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil showed good antibacterial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where S.
aureus was the most sensitive organism. Sesame and soyabean oils also showed
moderate activity against S. aureus. Higher content of linolenic acid in O.
sanctum fixed oil could contribute towards its antibacterial activity. The
antibacterial activity combined with anti/​inflammatory and analgesic activities
of the oil, could make it useful in inflammatory disorder resulting from
staphylococcal infection.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16187537 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Oct;278(1/​2):177/​84.

Effect of herbal polyphenols on atherogenic transcriptome.

Kaul D, Shukla AR, Sikand K, Dhawan V.

Department of Experimental Medicine & Biotechnology, Postgraduate Institute of
Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. dkaul_24@hotmail.com

The ancient Indian system of medicine supports the antiatherogenic properties of
some herbs. The crosstalk amongst the genes coding for LDLR, LXRalpha, PPARs
(alpha,gamma), CD/​36 and c/​myc may be important in atherogenesis because these
genes control lipid metabolism, cytokine production and cellular activity within
the arterial wall. Hence, we attempted for the first time to explore whether or
not the polyphenols extracted from medicinal herbs had any effect on the
transcription of these genes. Normal human mononuclear cells were cultured in
the presence of polyphenols (and their HPLC purified sub/​fractions) extracted
from Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Tulsi (Ocimum
sanctum). Transcriptional expression of these genes was measured by using RT/​PCR
and SCION IMAGE analysis software. These polyphenolic extracts were found to
have the inherent capacity to inhibit the transcriptional expression of genes
having direct involvement in atherogenic process. On the basis of these results,
we propose for the first time that HPLC purified polyphenolic fraction IV of
Tulsi may have a profound antiatherogenic effect.

PMID: 16180103 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;49(2):243/​5.

Study of anti/​tussive activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn in guinea pigs.

Nadig P, Laxmi S.

Publication Types:
Letter

PMID: 16170996 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;49(2):125/​31.

Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its
pharmacological actions: a short review.

Prakash P, Gupta N.

Department of Biochemistry, Seema Dental College & Hospital, Barrage Road,
Rishikesh, Dehradoon /​ 249 203, Uttranchal.

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners
for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems
of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole
plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen
throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis,
bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis,
painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has
also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic,
antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic,
antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol
(1/​hydroxy/​2/​methoxy/​4/​allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum
sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic
potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and
wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine
have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational
approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is,
however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of
Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian
scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam
distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant
and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system,
cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and
have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various
ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for
therapeutic uses of this plant.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 16170979 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Aug;43(8):715/​21.

Effect of standardized extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on gastric mucosal
offensive and defensive factors.

Goel RK, Sairam K, Dorababu M, Prabha T, Rao ChV.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi 221 005, India. rkgoel_bhu@yahoo.co.in

The standardized methanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum (OSE; eugenol
content 5%) given in doses of 50/​200 mg/kg, orally, twice daily for five days
showed dose/​dependent ulcer protective effect against cold restraint stress
induced gastric ulcers. Optimal effective dose (100 mg/kg) of OSE showed
significant ulcer protection against ethanol and pyloric ligation/​induced
gastric ulcers, but was ineffective against aspirin/​induced ulcers. OSE
significantly healed ulcers induced by 50% acetic acid after 5 and 10 days
treatment OSE (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the offensive acid/​pepsin
secretion and lipid peroxidation and increased the gastric defensive factors
like mucin secretion, cellular mucus, and life span of mucosal cells and had
antioxidant effect, but did not induce mucosal cell proliferation. The results
indicate that the ulcer protective and healing effects of OSE may be due to its
effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16121713 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

22: J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Aug;98(4):354/​60.

Noise/​stress/​induced brain neurotransmitter changes and the effect of Ocimum
sanctum (Linn) treatment in albino rats.

Ravindran R, Rathinasamy SD, Samson J, Senthilvelan M.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM. Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical
Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai /​ 600 113.

In this modern world, stress and pollution are unavoidable phenomena affecting
the body system at various levels. A large number of people are exposed to
potentially hazardous noise levels in daily modern life, such as noise from work
environments, urban traffic, and household appliances. A variety of studies have
suggested an association between noise exposure and the occurrence of disorders
involving extra/​auditory organs such as disorders of the nervous, endocrine, and
cardiovascular systems. In this study, Wistar strain albino rats were subjected
to 100 dB broadband white noise, 4 h daily for 15 days. The high/​pressure liquid
chromatographic estimation of norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and
serotonin in discrete regions of the rat brain indicates that noise stress can
alter the brain biogenic amines after 15 days of stress exposure. Ocimum sanctum
(OS), a medicinal herb that is widely claimed to posses antistressor activity
and used extensively in the Indian system of medicine for a variety of
disorders, was chosen for this study. Administration of the 70% ethanolic
extract of OS had a normalizing action on discrete regions of brain and
controlled the alteration in neurotransmitter levels due to noise stress,
emphasizing the antistressor potential of this plant.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16113498 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jul;30(7):583/​91.

Ocimum sanctum modulates selenite/​induced cataractogenic changes and prevents
rat lens opacification.

Gupta SK, Srivastava S, Trivedi D, Joshi S, Halder N.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi,
India. skgup@hotmail.com

PURPOSE: To study the effect of Ocimum sanctum (OS) on selenite/​induced
morphological and biochemical changes in isolated rat lenses as well as on
cataract incidence in rat pups. METHODS: Transparent rat lenses were divided
into normal, selenite/​only, and four treated groups. Selenite/​only and treated
group lenses were subjected to oxidative stress in vitro by incorporating sodium
selenite (100 microM) in the culture medium. The effect of OS (70, 140, 280, and
560 microg/ml) was studied on the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and
thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) in selenite/​challenged lenses.
The lowest concentration of OS offering significant modulation on these two
parameters was determined. Subsequently, the effect of prior and cotreatment
with the lowest effective concentration of OS was studied on TBARS, GSH, and on
lens antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione
peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase (CAT), and glutathione/​S/​transferase (GST). Changes
in lens protein profiles under different incubation conditions were analyzed by
SDS gel/​electrophoresis. In vivo, cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous
injection of sodium selenite (25 micromole/kg b.w.) to 9/​day/​old rat pups. The
anticataract effect of OS (5 and 10 mg/kg b.w.) injected intraperitoneally 4 hr
prior to selenite challenge was evaluated by the presence of lens nuclear
opacity in rat pups on the 16th postnatal day. Insolubilization of lens proteins
post/​selenite injection was monitored for 4 days. RESULTS: The lenses in the
selenite/​only group developed cortical opacities in 24 hr. OS showed different
degrees of positive modulation in selenite/​induced morphological as well as
biochemical changes. The lowest effective dose of OS that significantly
modulated glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances was found to
be 140 microg/ml. At this dose, a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme
levels and preservation of normal lens protein profile was observed. OS at the
dose of 70 microg/ml did not show any significant protection with respect to
either morphology or biochemistry of lenses. In vivo, 5 and 10 mg/kg of OS
reduced the incidence of selenite cataract by 20% and 60%, respectively, and
prevented protein insolubilization as well. CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous extract of OS
possesses potential anticataract activity against selenite/​induced experimental
cataractogenesis. The protective effect was supported by restoration of the
antioxidant defense system and inhibition of protein insolubilization of rat
lenses as well.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16020293 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Jul;7(4):414/​20.

Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic
patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing
fructose as sole carbohydrate.

Grover JK, Vats V, Yadav SS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor
to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in
non/​insulin/​dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle,
consumption of energy/​rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important
reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous
extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves
(OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert
hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical
setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS
and FG on fructose/​induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and
hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts
attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose/​rich diet in rats. Five
groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose
diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract
(200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30
days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum
glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment
with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum
glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract
substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS
and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in
addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are
suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the
associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful.
Though several antidiabetic principles (/​epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and
pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies are required
to certify their efficacy and safety before clinical scenario.

PMID: 15955128 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Res Vet Sci. 2005 Aug;79(1):37/​43. Epub 2004 Dec 21.

Immunotherapeutic potential of Ocimum sanctum (L) in bovine subclinical
mastitis.

Mukherjee R, Dash PK, Ram GC.

Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, UP 243
122, India. reena@ivri.up.nic.in

Immunotherapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum)
leaf in bovine sub/​clinical mastitis (SCM) was investigated. Somatic cell count
(SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), milk differential leukocyte count (DLC),
phagocytic activity and Phagocytic index and leukocyte lysosomal enzymes like
myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase content were evaluated after intramammary
infusion of aqueous leaf extract of O. sanctum. The results revealed that the
aqueous extract of O. sanctum treatment reduced the TBC and increased neutrophil
and lymphocyte counts with enhanced phagocytic activity and phagocytic index.
Similarly, the lysosomal enzymes contents of the milk polymorphonuclear cells
(PMNs) were also enhanced significantly in animals treated with the extract. The
results suggest that the crude aqueous extract of O. sanctum (leaf) possesses
some biologically active principles that are antibacterial and immunomodulatory
in nature. As such, the present wok substantiates the therapeutic use of
medicinal herb and also emphasizes on the potential of the commonly available
non/​toxic substances to enhance the mammary immunity.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 15894022 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

26: J Basic Microbiol. 2005;45(2):106/​14.

Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of
beta/​lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Aqil F, Khan MS, Owais M, Ahmad I.

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh/​/​202002 India.

Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for
antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical
isolates of beta/​lactamase producing methicillin/​resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) and methicillin/​sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of
plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test
strains were found to be multi/​drug resistant and also exhibited high level of
resistance to common beta/​lactam antibiotics. These strains produced
beta/​lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta/​lactam antibiotics, tested.
The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia
(flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica
granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits)
showed a broad/​spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size
of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves
of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the
other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind)
exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency
of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged
from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from
Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and
methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the
methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from
Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and
Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from
Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above
extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like alkaloids,
glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. TLC/​bioautography indicated
phenols and flavonoids as major active compounds.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15812867 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

27: Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Feb;103(2):109/​15.

Mineral content of some medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes
mellitus.

Narendhirakannan RT, Subramanian S, Kandaswamy M.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Chennai/​25, India.

It is known that certain inorganic trace elements such as vanadium, zinc,
chromium, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, and nickel play an important role in
the maintenance of normoglycemia by activating the beta/​cells of the pancreas.
In the present study, the elemental composition in the leaves of four
traditional medicinal plants (Murraya koenigii, Mentha piperitae, Ocimum
sanctum, and Aegle marmelos) widely used in the treatment of diabetes/​related
metabolic disorders has been studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The
levels of Cu, Ni, Zn, K, and Na were found to be in trace amounts, whereas Fe,
Cr, and V levels were found in marginal levels. The importance of these elements
in disorders related to diabetes is also briefly discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15772435 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

28: Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Feb;32(2):106/​11.

Preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and
Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Shokeen P, Ray K, Bala M, Tandon V.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi,
India.

BACKGROUND: Despite the progressive increase of antimicrobial resistance of
Neisseria gonorrhoeae worldwide, there are limited reports of alternative
remedies from plants. GOAL: The aim of the current study was to screen 3 plants,
Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa, for activity against
Neisseria gonorrhoeae. STUDY: By disc diffusion method, extracts of these 3
plants were screened for activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae; their
antimicrobial activity was calculated as percentage inhibition and compared with
penicillin and ciprofloxacin. RESULTS: The extracts of all 3 plants caused
inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates and World Health
Organization (WHO) strains, more so than the multidrug resistant Neisseria
gonorrhoeae. CONCLUSION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates and WHO strains
were sensitive to extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona
squamosa. This motivates us to isolate the active component/second from the 3
plants.

PMID: 15668617 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

29: J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;57(1):127/​33.

Chronic oral administration of Ocimum sanctum Linn. augments cardiac endogenous
antioxidants and prevents isoproterenol/​induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

Sood S, Narang D, Dinda AK, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New
Delhi/​110 029, India.

Wistar rats (200/​250 g) of either sex were fed with fresh leaf homogenate of
Ocimum sanctum by oral gavage in two different doses, 50 mg kg/​1(Os 50) and 100
mg kg/​1 (Os 100), daily for 30 days. This was followed by isoproterenol
administration (85 mg kg/​1 s.c. two doses at 24h intervals) in both control and
0. sanctum/​fed rats to induce myocardial necrosis. Hearts were isolated for
estimation of endogenous myocardial antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD),
catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and
myocardial lipid peroxidation) and light microscopic study. Increased basal
myocardial antioxidant SOD (9.3 +//​ 1.2 vs 3.7 +//​ 0.7 units mg/​1 protein;
P<0.05) and catalase activities (34.3 +//​ 5.4 vs 17.9 +//​ 5.1 units mg/​1
protein; P< 0.05) were observed in the Os 50 group only without any evidence of
cellular injury in both the groups. In control rats, isoproterenol
administration caused significant depletion of myocardial SOD (1.7 +//​ 0.2 units
mg/​1 protein) and GPx (104 +//​ 2mU mg/​1 protein) activities and increase in GSH
(551.7 +//​ 30.9, microg g/​1 wet weight of tissue) level, with evidence of
myocardial necrosis. Isoproterenol/​induced changes in myocardial SOD, GPx and
GSH were prevented by both the doses of 0. sanctum, however cellular injury was
minimal only with 50mg kg/​1. The results indicate that long/​term feeding of 0.
sanctum offered significant protection against isoproterenol/​induced myocardial
necrosis through a unique property of enhancement of endogenous antioxidants.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15651118 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

30: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;96(3):477/​82. Epub 2004 Nov 30.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on the changes in central cholinergic system
induced by acute noise stress.

Sembulingam K, Sembulingam P, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute
(Deemed University), Porur, Chennai 600116, India. ksembu@yahoo.com

The ethanolic extract from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn was screened for
its effects on the noise induced changes in the central cholinergic system of
albino rats by investigating the acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase
activity in discrete areas of brain. Exposure to noise (10 kHz:100 dB) stress
for 30 min caused a significant reduction in total acetylcholine content and
increase in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in cerebral cortex, corpus
striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of brain. Pretreatment of the animals
with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves for 7 days prevented the noise
induced changes in these two cholinergic parameters in all the four areas of
brain. The results of the study indicate the protective nature of the plant
material on the brain tissues against the detrimental effect of noise stress.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15619567 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

31: Pharmazie. 2004 Nov;59(11):876/​8.

Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through
inhibition in corticosteroid concentration.

Gholap S, Kar A.

School of Life Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, India.

To unravel the possible mechanism of glucose lowering activity, effects of ten
different plant extracts in the regulation of serum cortisol and glucose
concentrations were evaluated in male mice. While the extracts of Inula
racemosa, Boerhaavia diffusa and Ocimum sanctum decreased the serum
concentration of both cortisol and glucose, Aegle marmelos, Azadirachta indica
and Gymnema sylvestre extracts could exhibit hypoglycaemic activity without
altering the serum cortisol concentration. It appears that the hypoglycaemic
effects of former three plant extracts are mediated through their cortisol
inhibiting potency, whereas the mechanism for other plant extracts could be
different. Lipid/​peroxidation was not enhanced by any of the plant extracts
(some were in fact, antiperoxidative in nature). As I. racemosa, B. diffusa and
O. sanctum exhibited antiperoxidative, hypoglycaemic and cortisol lowering
activities, it is suggested that these three plant extracts may potentially
regulate corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15587591 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

32: J Chromatogr A. 2004 Oct 29;1054(1/​2):67/​72.

Essential oil yield and quality of methyl eugenol rich Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f.
(syn. O. sanctum L.) grown in south India as influenced by method of harvest.

Kothari SK, Bhattacharya AK, Ramesh S.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Field Station,
Boduppal, Uppal (PO), Hyderabad 500039, India. cimaphyd@rediffmail.com

A field experiment carried out during 2001/​/​2002 under semi/​arid conditions of
Hyderabad, India investigated the effect of three different methods of
harvesting at full bloom stage, on essential oil yield and quality of methyl
eugenol rich sacred/holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f.; Lamiaceae). The harvest
methods were: harvesting of primary branches, secondary branches and shoot
biomass cut at 30 cm above ground level. Four harvests at 102, 192, 287 and 360
days after transplanting of the crop were taken in 1 year in each method of
harvest. Harvesting of secondary branches led to maximum plant height and number
of secondary branches per plant compared to harvesting of primary branches or
shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground during second, third and fourth
harvests. On the contrary, secondary branch harvest gave least biomass yield in
all the four harvests. But due to higher essential oil content, secondary branch
harvest gave 25.2 and 15.4% higher total (sum total of all four harvests)
essential oil yield (kg/ha per year) over primary branches and shoot biomass cut
at 30 cm above ground methods of harvesting, respectively. A similar treatment
difference was observed in respect of oil composition studied in the first
harvest. Harvesting shoot biomass at 30 cm above ground produced oil containing
highest amount of methyl eugenol. The content of methyl eugenol decreased in the
order of shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground > primary branch > secondary
branch treatments. A reverse trend was observed, however, in respect of
(E)/​cinnamyl acetate, eugenol and beta/​elemene constituents of the oil. Little
variability was, however, observed among the treatments in respect of 24 other
constituents of the oils.

PMID: 15553132 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Life Sci. 2004 Nov 19;76(1):21/​8.

Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by botanical extracts of Ocimum sanctum: in
vivo and in vitro studies.

Geetha RK, Vasudevan DM.

DVS College of Arts and Science, Shimoga, Pin/​577 201, Karnataka, India.
geethasamak@yahoo.com

Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has significant ability to scavenge
highly reactive free radicals. Shade dried leaf powder of the plant was
extracted with water and alcohol, and then fractionated with different solvents.
Both extracts and their fractions have in vitro anti/​lipidperoxidative activity
at very low concentrations. In vivo, hypercholesterolemia/​induced erythrocyte
lipid peroxidation activity was inhibited by aqueous extracts of Ocimum in a
dose/​dependent manner in male albino rabbits. Aqueous extract feeding also
provided significant liver and aortic tissue protection from
hypercholesterolemia/​induced peroxidative damage.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15532130 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

34: Phytother Res. 2004 Aug;18(8):670/​3.

Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti/​enteric
potential against multi/​drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

Rani P, Khullar N.

Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh/​160 014, India.

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of
traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant
extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against
multi/​drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown
by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica
granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and
Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia
belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia
catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum,
Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and
Butea monosperma.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15476301 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Sep;79(1):155/​64.

Evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum on
transient cerebral ischemia and long/​term cerebral hypoperfusion.

Yanpallewar SU, Rai S, Kumar M, Acharya SB.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, 221 005 Varanasi, India.

Free radicals are implicated in causation of cerebral reperfusion injury and
chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats is associated with functional and
histopathological disturbances. Ocimum sanctum (OS), a plant widely used in
Ayurveda, has been shown to possess anti/​inflammatory, antioxidant and
cognition/​enhancing properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect
of methanolic extract of OS leaves in cerebral reperfusion injury as well as
long/​term hypoperfusion. Occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA)
for 30 min followed by 45 min reperfusion caused increase in lipid peroxidation
and up/​regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity accompanied by fall in
tissue total sulfhydryl groups (TSH) in rat forebrains. Ascorbic acid levels
were unchanged, however. OS pretreatment (200 mg/kg/day for 7 days) prevented
this reperfusion/​induced rise in lipid peroxidation and SOD activity. OS
pretreatment also stabilized the levels of TSH during reperfusion. Long/​term
cerebral hypoperfusion (a model of cerebrovascular insufficiency and dementia)
induced by permanent occlusion of BCCA for 15 days demonstrated altered
exploratory behavior in open/​field testing and memory deficits as tested by
Morris' water maze. Histopathological examination of hypoperfused animals
revealed reactive changes, like cellular edema, gliosis and perivascular
inflammatory infiltrate. OS treatment (200 mg/kg/day for 15 days) significantly
prevented these hypoperfusion/​induced functional and structural disturbances.
The results suggest that OS may be useful in treatment of cerebral reperfusion
injury and cerebrovascular insufficiency states.

PMID: 15388295 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

36: J Med Food. 2004 Fall;7(3):343/​8.

The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal
plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
gc.jagetia@kmc.manipal.edu

The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for
their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium
nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested
demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The
potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris >
Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis >
Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum
sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex
negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia
(methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia
diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V.
negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa
> A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts
evaluated exhibited a dose/​dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris
bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as
compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar
concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be
potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of
pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation
product, peroxynitrite.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies

PMID: 15383230 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Nov;41(11):1329/​33.

Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures.

Jaggi RK, Madaan R, Singh B.

University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh
160014, India.

Callus cultures from stem of O. sanctum were induced on slightly modified
Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium and supplemented with
2,4/​dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4/​D, 1/​2 ppm) and kinetin (kn, 1 ppm).
Different extractives of stem, leaf and stem callus of O. sanctum were tested
for anticonvulsant activity against standard drug phenytoin using maximal
electroshock (MES) model. Ethanol and chloroform extractives of stem, leaf and
stem calli were effective in preventing tonic convulsions induced by
transcorneal electroshock.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15332507 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

38: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;47(4):465/​70.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum (OS) leaf extract on hepatotoxicity induced by
antitubercular drugs in rats.

Ubaid RS, Anantrao KM, Jaju JB, Mateenuddin M.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Letter

PMID: 15266961 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

39: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Aug;93(2/​3):289/​94.

Anti/​cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella
foenum/​graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats.

Vats V, Yadav SP, Biswas NR, Grover JK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 4th Floor,
Teaching Block, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.

Long/​term complications are frequently encountered in diabetes mellitus and are
difficult to treat. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of three
antidiabetic plants on the development of cataract in rats. An aqueous extract
of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM, Hindi name: Vijaysar) (1 g kg(/​1)
day(/​1)), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS, Hindi name, Tulsi) (200 mg kg(/​1)
day(/​1)) and alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum/​graecum Linn seeds (FG,
Hindi name, Methi) (2 g kg(/​1) day(/​1)) were given to alloxan (120 mg kg(/​1))
diabetic rats until the development of cataract. Serum glucose and body weight
were monitored at regular intervals while cataract was examined through naked
eye as well as slit lamp at 75, 100 and 115 days after alloxan administration.
Administration of all the three plant extracts exerted a favorable effect on
body weight and blood glucose, the effects were best with PM followed by FG and
OS. On the course of cataract development, PM followed by FG exerted
anti/​cataract effect evident from decreased opacity index while OS failed to
produce any anti/​cataract effect in spite of significant antihyperglycemic
activity.

PMID: 15234767 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

40: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Aug;93(2/​3):197/​206.

Evaluation of anti/​ulcerogenic and ulcer/​healing properties of Ocimum sanctum
Linn.

Dharmani P, Kuchibhotla VK, Maurya R, Srivastava S, Sharma S, Palit G.

Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, P.O. Box 173, Lucknow
226001, UP, India.

Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We
evaluated its anti/​ulcerogenic activity in cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP),
alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in
Sprague/​Dawley rats, histamine/​induced duodenal (HST) ulcer in guinea pigs, and
ulcer/​healing activity, in acetic acid/​induced (AC) chronic ulcer model. We
found that OS, decreased the incidence of ulcers and also enhanced the healing
of ulcers. OS at a dose of 100 mg/kg was found to be effective in CRU (65.07%),
ASP (63.49%), AL (53.87%), PL (62.06%), and HST (61.76%) induced ulcer models
and significantly reduced free, total acidity and peptic activity by 72.58,
58.63, 57.6%, respectively, and increased mucin secretion by 34.61%.
Additionally, OS completely healed the ulcers within 20 days of treatment in AC.
We observed that anti/​ulcer effect of OS may be due to its cytoprotective effect
rather than antisecretory activity. Conclusively, OS was found to possess potent
anti/​ulcerogenic as well as ulcer/​healing properties and could act as a potent
therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15234753 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

41: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jan;90(1):155/​60.

Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves partially attenuates
streptozotocin/​induced alterations in glycogen content and carbohydrate
metabolism in rats.

Vats V, Yadav SP, Grover JK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi 110049, India.

Ocimum sanctum (OS) has been mentioned in Indian system of traditional medicine
to be of value in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. We have previously shown
that OS shows a dose/​dependent hypoglycemic effect and prevented rise in plasma
glucose in normal rats. It also showed significant antihyperglycemic effect in
STZ/​induced diabetes. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of
OS on three important enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism [glucokinase (GK) (EC
2.7.1.2), hexokinase (HK) (EC 2.7.1.1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) (EC
2.7.1.11)] along with glycogen content of insulin/​dependent (skeletal muscle and
liver) and insulin/​independent tissues (kidneys and brain) in STZ (65 mg/kg)
induced model of diabetes for 30 days. Administration of OS extract 200mg/kg for
30 days led to decrease in plasma glucose levels by approximately 9.06 and 26.4%
on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and two/​kidney weight expressed as
percentage of body weight significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus
normal controls. OS significantly decreased renal (P<0.0005) but not liver
weight. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and
skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls
versus controls. OS did not affect glycogen content in any tissue. Activity of
HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and OS
partially corrected this alteration.

PMID: 14698524 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6/​7):474/​82.

Antiatherogenic effect of Caps HT2, a herbal Ayurvedic medicine formulation.

Mary NK, Babu BH, Padikkala J.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

The antiatherogenic effect of a herbal formulation, Caps HT2, was evaluated as
antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase
releasing, anti/​inflammatory and hypolipidaemic activity in rats. The
formulation contained the methanolic extracts of selected parts of plants,
Commiphora mukul, Allium sativum, Plumbago indica, Semecarpus anacardium,
Hemidesmus indicus, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera
and Ocimum sanctum. The formulation, Caps HT2 was found to scavenge superoxide
and hydroxyl radicals; the IC50 required being 55.0 and 610.0 microg/ml
respectively. The lipid peroxidation was found inhibited (50%) by 48.5 microg/ml
of Caps HT2. The intravenous administration of the formulation (5 mg/kg) delayed
the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and enhanced the release of
lipoprotein lipase enzyme significantly (p < 0.001). The formulation also
inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to
commercial heparin. The anti/​inflammatory action of the formulation was
significant (p < 0.001) with acute and chronic inflammations induced by
carrageenan and formalin respectively in rats. The hypolipidaemic effect of Caps
HT2 was significant (p < 0.001) with the administration of the formulation, in
diet/​induced hyperlipidaemia of rats for a period of 30 days. Oral
administration of the formulation, Caps HT2 (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg)
significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The atherogenic index and the
reduction in body weight were significant indicating the effectiveness against
hyperlipidaemia and obesity. All these results revealed the therapeutic
potential of Caps HT2 against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading
to various types of cardiovascular problems.

PMID: 13678230 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

43: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Oct;88(2/​3):293/​6.

Antinociceptive action of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) in mice: possible mechanisms
involved.

Khanna N, Bhatia J.

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Medical Sciences, G.T.B.
Hospital, Shahdara, Delhi 110095, India. khanna_naresh@hotmail.com

The alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (OS, Tulsi) was tested for
analgesic activity in mice. In the glacial acetic acid (GAA)/​induced writhing
test, OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.; and 50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number
of writhes. OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased the tail withdrawal latency
in mice. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an opioid antagonist, and DSP/​4 (50 mg/kg,
i.p.), a central noradrenaline depletor, attenuated the analgesic effect of OS
in both the experimental models, whereas, PCPA (300 mg/kg, i.p.), a serotonin
synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the action of OS on tail flick response in
mice. The results of our study suggest that the analgesic action of OS is
exerted both centrally as well as peripherally and involves an interplay between
various neurotransmitter systems.

PMID: 12963158 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

44: Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):306/​10.

Protective effect of a polyherbal formulation (Immu/​21) against
cyclophosphamide/​induced mutagenicity in mice.

Jena GB, Nemmani KV, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical
Education and Research, Sector/​67, S A S Nagar, Punjab 160 062, India.

The object was to evaluate the effects of a polyherbal formulation, Immu/​21,
against cyclophosphamide (CP)/​induced chromosomal aberrations (CA) and
micronuclei (MN) in mice. CP alone (40 mg/kg, i.p.) produced classical as well
as non/​classical chromosomal aberrations in mice, and the incidence of CA was
significantly more in the CP treated group when compared with that of the
control group. Immu/​21, which contains extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania
somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia, was given at 100 mg/kg,
daily, over 7 days, and 30 mg/kg daily over 14 days and inhibited both
CP/​induced classical and non/​classical chromosomal aberrations ( approximately
40%/​60% of control). A significant increase in MN was also observed in bone
marrow erythrocytes of mice treated with CP, and pretreatment with Immu/​21 also
significantly reduced these. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by estimating the ratio
of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). The
present results indicate that chronic treatment with Immu/​21 prevented
CP/​induced genotoxicity in mice. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12722129 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

45: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;47(1):115/​9.

Protective effect of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum) on lipid peroxidation in stress
induced by anemic hypoxia in rabbits.

Sethi J, Sood S, Seth S, Talwar A.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Letter

PMID: 12708134 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

46: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1161/​3.

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on neurochemical perturbations induced
by chronic stress.

Bhattacharya A, Muruganandam AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK.

Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical
Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

EuMil, a polyherbal formulation consisting of standardised extracts of Withania
somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L, Asparagus racemosus Wilid and Emblica
officinalis Gaertn., is used as an anti/​stress agent to attenuate the various
aspects of stress related disorders. In the present study, the neurochemical
mechanisms underlying the anti/​stress activity of EuMil were evaluated by
measuring the rat brain monoamine neurotransmitter levels and tribulin activity.
Chronic electroshock stress (14 days) significantly decreased the nor/​adrenaline
(NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in frontal Cortex, pons/​medulla, hypothalamus,
hippocampus and striatal, hypothalamal region, respectively, and increased the
5/​hydroxytryptamine (5HT) level in frontal cortex, pons medulla, hypothalamus
and hippocampus. Chronic stress, also increased the rat brain tribulin activity.
EuMil (100 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days) treatment normalized the perturbed regional NA,
DA, 5HT concentrations, induced by chronic stress. EuMil also significantly
attenuated the stress/​induced increase in the rat brain tribulin activity. The
amelioration of chronic stress/​induced neurochemical perturbations by EuMil
explains the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the observed putative
anti/​stress activity of the product.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12693697 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1151/​60.

Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on chronic stress/​induced homeostatic
perturbations in rats.

Muruganandam AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK.

R & D Centre, Indian Herbs Ltd., Saharanpur 247 001, India. ihsre@vsnl.com

EuMil, is a herbal formulation comprising the standardised extracts of Withania
somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L, Asparagus racemosus Willd and Emblica
officinalis Gaertn., all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas to
promote physical and mental health, improve defense mechanisms of the body and
enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of
adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection to the human
physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken
to investigate the adaptogenic and antistress activity of EuMil against chronic
unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress/​induced perturbations in behaviour
(depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour,
immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Panex
ginseng (PG) was used for comparison. Gastric ulceration, plasma corticosterone
levels, serum lipid, hepatic and renal functions were used as the stress
indices. These effects were attenuated by EuMil (dose 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG
(100 mg/kg. p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period
of stress induction period. Further, chronic stress also induced glucose
intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural despair and
cognitive dysfunction and immunosuppression. All these chronic stress/​induced
perturbations were attenuated, in a dose dependent manner by EuMil and PG. Thus,
the results indicate that EuMil has significant adaptogenic and anti/​stress,
activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural,
biochemical and physiological perturbations, induced by unpredictable stress,
which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute
stress. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of EuMil in the
observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, has been discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12693696 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

48: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May;86(1):113/​6.

Lens aldose reductase inhibiting potential of some indigenous plants.

Halder N, Joshi S, Gupta SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldover. Diabetes is one of the
major risk factors for cataractogenesis and aldose reductase (AR) has been
reported to play an important role in sugar/​induced cataract. In the present
study, the AR inhibitory activity of Ocimum sanctum (OS), Withania somnifera
(WS), Curcuma longa (CL), Azadirachta indica (AI) were studied together with
their effect on sugar/​induced cataractogenic changes in rat lenses in vitro.
Aqueous extracts of the plants, procured from Dabur, India, were reconstituted
with double distilled water to make various dilutions. AR inhibitory activity of
these extracts and their anticataract potentials were evaluated in vitro in rat
lenses. AR inhibitory activity of the aqueous extract of different plants was
calculated considering the AR activity of normal rat lenses as 100%. The
concentration of the plant extract that showed maximum AR inhibitory activity
was selected to further study its effect on galactose/​induced lens swelling and
polyol accumulation in vitro. All the four plants were found to inhibit lens AR
activity but to different extent. From dose/​response curve, OS was found to be
the most effective AR inhibitor followed by CL, AI and WS. The IC(50) values of
OS, CL, AI and WS were calculated to be 20, 55, 57 and 89 microg/ml,
respectively. OS showed a significant inhibition (38.05%) in polyol accumulation
followed by CL and AI (28.4 and 25.04%, respectively). WS did not show any
effect on polyol level in rat lenses. None of the plant extracts showed any
significant effect on lens water content.OS possesses a significant anticataract
activity in vitro and its anticataract potential could be related with its AR
inhibitory effect.

PMID: 12686449 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

49: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar;40(3):282/​7.

Cell proliferation and natural killer cell activity by polyherbal formulation,
Immu/​21 in mice.

Nemmani KV, Jena GB, Dey CS, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical
Education and Research, Sector/​67, S. A. S. Nagar 160 062, India.

Immunomodulatory activity of an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, Immu/​21
containing extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis
and Tinospora cordifolia was studied on proliferative response of splenic
leukocytes to T cell mitogens, concanavalin (Con)/​A and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)
and B cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro by [3H]/​thymidine uptake
assay in mice. The cytotoxic activity of Immu/​21 was tested by measuring the
splenic leukocyte natural killer (NK) cell activity against K 562 cells.
Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with Immu/​21 (30 mg/kg) once a day for 14 and
21 days did not cause change in body weight and spleen weight, where as
splenocytes/spleen count was increased. Treatment of Immu/​21 (30 mg/kg, i.p.)
for 14 days and 1 mg/kg for 21 days significantly increased LPS induced
leukocyte proliferation. NK cell activity was significantly increased when mice
were pretreated with Immu/​21 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day for 7 days. The
results indicate that pretreatment with Immu/​21 selectively increased the
proliferation of splenic leukocyte to B cell mitogen, LPS and cytotoxic activity
against K 562 cells in mice.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12635697 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

50: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Jul;40(7):765/​73.

Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal
plant.

Gupta SK, Prakash J, Srivastava S.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
110 029, India. skgup@hotmail.com

In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha
and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in
cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever,
otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy,
genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present
review incorporates the description of O. sanctum plant, its chemical
constituents, and various pharmacological activities.

Publication Types:
Review
Validation Studies

PMID: 12597545 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

51: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Sep;40(9):1079/​82.

Ocimum sanctum aqueous leaf extract provides protection against mercury induced
toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

Sharma MK, Kumar M, Kumar A.

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302 004, India.

HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg body weight) induced toxicity led to significant elevation of
lipid peroxidation (LPO) level but decline in the glutathione content in liver
of Swiss albino mice. In serum of HgCl2 treated mice there was significant
elevation in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum
glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activities but significant decline in the
alkaline phosphatase activity. Animals treated with O. sanctum extract (10 mg/kg
body weight, po) before and after mercury intoxication showed a significant
decrease in LPO level, SGOT and SGPT activities and increase in serum alkaline
phosphatase activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Ocimum treatment alone did
not alter SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase activities but significantly
enhanced reduced glutathione. The results suggest that oral administration of
Ocimum extract provides protection against HgCl2 induced toxicity in Swiss
albino mice.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12587743 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

52: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan;84(1):105/​8.

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants
in alloxan diabetic rats.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG.

Satsang Herbal Research and Analytical Laboratories, PO Satsang/​814 116 Deoghar,
India. pratip_neogy@hotmail.com

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have
been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic,
Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different
herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose
lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino
rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using
herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once, twice or thrice daily, as needed.
While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal
samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in
decreasing order in the following 24 samples/​Coccinia indica, Tragia
involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum/​graecum, Moringa
oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita, Momordica
charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna
integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca,
Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle
marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum.
Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental
herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in
crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental
results. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

PMID: 12499084 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Phytother Res. 2002 Sep;16(6):579/​80.

A comparative study of different crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum on noise
stress.

Archana R, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical
Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai /​ 600 113, India.

Our previous studies have shown that the ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum
(OS) leaves was effective in alleviating the noise stress induced changes. Hence
in this study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different types of
crude OS extracts on some of the stress parameters after noise stress. The
results of this study has shown that the active principle responsible for
antistressor effect of ethanolic extract is also present in cold homogenised
leaf extract of OS also. Hot extracts slightly decrease the potency of the
active principle in normalizing corticosteroid level. Copyright 2002 John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12237819 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

54: J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;13(1):51/​9.

Reversible anti/​fertility effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on
sperm parameters and fructose content in rats.

Ahmed M, Ahamed RN, Aladakatti RH, Ghosesawar MG.

Department of Post/​Graduate Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad,
India.

Treatment of albino rats with a benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves (250
mg/kg body weight) for 48 d decreased total sperm count, sperm motility, and
forward velocity. The percentage of abnormal sperm increased in caudal
epididymal fluid, and the fructose content decreased in the caudal plasma of the
epididymis and the seminal vesicles. The results suggest that such effects are
due to androgen deprivation, caused by the anti/​androgenic property of O.
sanctum leaves. The effect was reversible because all parameters returned to
normal 2 wk after the withdrawal of treatment.

PMID: 12099405 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Indian J Med Sci. 2001 Aug;55(8):434/​8, 472.

Activity of Ocimum sanctum (the traditional Indian medicinal plant) against the
enteric pathogens.

Geeta, Vasudevan DM, Kedlaya R, Deepa S, Ballal M.

Dept. of Microbiology, Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences.

Aqueous & alcoholic extracts of O. sanctum were prepared. Two concentrations of
these extracts (30 mg & 60 mg) were tried against the enteric pathogens &
candida albicans by Agar diffusion method. Wide zones of inhibition were
observed at 60 mg concentration of extract. Aqeous extract showed wider zone of
inhibition when compared to alcoholic extract. Aqueous extract showed wider
zones of inhibition for Klebisella, E. Coil, Proteus & Staphylococcus aureus.
Alcoholic extract showed wider zone for vibrio cholerae.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12026506 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

56: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1):81/​100.

Medicinal plants of India with anti/​diabetic potential.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi/​110049, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda
and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various
human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several
thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted
in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used
traditionally for diabetes have shown anti/​diabetic property. The present paper
reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude
extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of
medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti/​diabetic activity. Indian
plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to
diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera,
Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis,
Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium,
Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum
graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna
pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya
koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of
hypoglycemic and anti/​hyperglycemic activity.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 12020931 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

57: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Apr;80(1):15/​20.

Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of Ocimum sanctum seed oil and its
possible mechanism of action.

Mediratta PK, Sharma KK, Singh S.

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB
Hospital, 110095, New Delhi, India.

The present study investigates the effect of Ocimum sanctum seed oil (OSSO) on
some immunological parameters in both non/​stressed and stressed animals. An
attempt has also been made to explore the possible mechanism of immunomodulatory
activity. OSSO (3 ml/kg, ip) produced a significant increase in anti/​sheep red
blood cells (SRBC) antibody titre and a decrease in percentage histamine release
from peritoneal mast cells of sensitized rats (humoral immune responses), and
decrease in footpad thickness and percentage leucocyte migration inhibition
(LMI) (cell/​mediated immune responses). Restraint stress (RS) produced a
significant reduction in the anti/​SRBC antibody titre, foot pad thickness and
percentage LMI (% LMI). The effects of RS on humoral as well as cell/​mediated
immune responses were effectively attenuated by pretreating the animals with
OSSO. Co/​administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg, sc), a benzodiazepine (BZD), with
OSSO (1 ml/kg, ip) enhanced the effect of OSSO on RS/​induced changes in both
humoral and cell/​mediated immune responses. Further, flumazenil (5 mg/kg, ip), a
central BZD receptor antagonist inhibited the immunomodulatory action of OSSO on
RS/​induced immune responsiveness. Thus, OSSO appears to modulate both humoral
and cell/​mediated immune responsiveness and these immunomodulatory effects may
be mediated by GABAergic pathways.

PMID: 11891082 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

58: Phytother Res. 2001 Nov;15(7):618/​20.

Evaluation of Ophthacare eye drops/​/​a herbal formulation in the management of
various ophthalmic disorders.

Biswas NR, Gupta SK, Das GK, Kumar N, Mongre PK, Haldar D, Beri S.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

An open prospective multicentre clinical trial was conducted in patients
suffering from various ophthalmic disorders namely, conjunctivitis, conjunctival
xerosis (dry eye), acute dacryocystitis, degenerative conditions (pterygium or
pinguecula) and postoperative cataract patients with a herbal eye drop
preparation (Ophthacare) containing basic principles of different herbs which
have been conventionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time
immemorial. These include Carum copticum, Terminalia belirica, Emblica
officinalis, Curcuma longa, Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum camphora, Rosa damascena
and meldespumapum. These herbs reportedly possess antiinfective and
antiinflammatory properties. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the
role of this herbal product in a variety of eye ailments. Side effects, if any,
were noted during the study. An improvement was observed with the treatment of
the herbal eye drop treatment in most cases. There were no side effects observed
during the course of the study and the eye drop was well tolerated by the
patients. The herbal eye drop Ophthacare has a useful role in a variety of
infective, inflammatory and degenerative ophthalmic disorders. Copyright 2001
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Multicenter Study

PMID: 11746845 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

59: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jan;79(1):95/​100.

Evaluation of anti/​hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella
foenum/​graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in
normal and alloxanized diabetic rats.

Vats V, Grover JK, Rathi SS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, 110 049, New Delhi, India.

The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous (Aq) extract of the bark of Pterocarpus
marsupium (PM) and alcoholic (Alc) extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum/​graecum
(FG) and leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OS) was investigated in both normal and
alloxan/​induced diabetic rats. The Aq extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) significantly
(P<0.001) reduced the blood sugar levels from 72.32+//​5.62 to 61.35+//​1.2 mg% 2
h after oral administration of the extract and also significantly lowered the
blood glucose in alloxan diabetic rats from 202.91+//​5.44 to 85.22+//​11.28 mg%
21 days after daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Similarly,
reduction was seen with Alc extract of FG (74.33+//​4.77 to 60.56+//​1.9 in normal
rats and 201.25+//​7.69 to 121.25+//​6.25 in diabetic rats) (P<0.001) and OS
(204.48+//​11.0 to 131.43+//​7.86 in normal rats and 73.54+//​3.7 to 61.44+//​2.3 in
diabetic rats) (P<0.001). In addition, the extract also showed a favorable
effect on glucose disposition in glucose fed hyperglycemic rats.

PMID: 11744301 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Sep;225(1/​):75/​83.

Cardioprotective potential of ocimum sanctum in isoproterenol induced myocardial
infarction in rats.

Sharma M, Kishore K, Gupta SK, Joshi S, Arya DS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi.

Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in rats with 85, 200 and 300 mg/kg of
isoproterenol (ISO) administered subcutaneously (sc) twice at an interval of 24
h. Shift in antioxidant parameters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) together with
morphological and histopathological changes were investigated. Two hundred mg/kg
ISO dose was selected for the present study as this dose offered significant
alteration in biochemical parameters along with moderate necrosis in heart.
Effect of pre/​ and co/​treatment of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Os)
at different doses (25, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was investigated against
ISO (200 mg/kg) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Modulation of various
biochemical parameters and membrane integrity was studied. Os at the dose of 25,
50, 75 and 100 mg/kg reduced significantly glutathione (GSH), superoxide
dismutase (SOD) and LDH levels. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation as
observed by the reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels.
In the present study Os at the dose of 50 mg/kg was found to demonstrate maximum
cardioprotective effect. Above results were further confirmed by
histopathological findings. Thus from the present study it is concluded that Os
may be of therapeutic and prophylactic value in the treatment of MI.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 11716367 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

61: J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Dec;78(2/​3):139/​43.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on blood pressure, blood clotting time and
pentobarbitone/​induced sleeping time.

Singh S, Rehan HM, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, 110017, New Delhi, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil produced hypotensive effect in anaesthetised dog, which
seems to be due to its peripheral vasodilatory action. The oil increased
blood/​clotting time and percentage increase was comparable to aspirin and could
be due to inhibition of platelet aggregation. The oil also increased
pentobarbitone/​induced sleeping time in rats indicating probable inhibitory
effect of oil towards cytochromic enzyme responsible for hepatic metabolism of
pentobarbitone.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11694358 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

62: Mutat Res. 2001 Nov 15;498(1/​2):39/​46.

Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and
vicenin.

Vrinda B, Uma Devi P.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 119, India.

Orientin (Ot) and Vicenin (Vc), two water/​soluble flavonoids isolated from the
leaves of Indian holy basil Ocimum sanctum have shown significant protection
against radiation lethality and chromosomal aberrations in vivo. In the present
study the protective effect of Ot and Vc against radiation induced chromosome
damage in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes was determined by micronucleus
test. In order to select the most effective drug concentration, fresh whole
blood was exposed to 4Gy of cobalt/​60 gamma/​radiation with or without a 30 min
pre/​treatment with 6.25, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 or 20 microM of Ot/Vc. Micronucleus
(MN) assay was done by cytochalasin induced cytokinesis block method. Radiation
significantly increased the MN frequency (16 times normal). Pre/​treatment with
either Ot or Vc at all concentrations significantly (P<0.05/​0.001) reduced the
MN count in a concentration dependent manner, with the optimum effect at 17.5
microM. Therefore, fresh blood samples were incubated with/without 17.5 microM
Ot/Vc for 30 min and then exposed to 0.5/​4Gy of gamma/​radiation. Radiation
increased the MN frequency linearly (r(2)=0.99) with dose. Pre/​treatment with Ot
or Vc significantly (P<0.01/​0.001) reduced the MN counts to 51/​67% of RT alone
values, giving DMFs of 2.62 (Ot) and 2.48 (Vc). Both the compounds showed
significant antioxidant activity in vitro at the above concentrations, which was
significantly higher than that of DMSO at equimolar concentrations. Thus, the
results demonstrate that both the flavonoids give significant protection to the
human lymphocytes against the clastogenic effect of radiation at low, non/​toxic
concentrations. The radioprotection seems to be associated with their
antioxidant activity. The clinical potential of these protectors in cancer
therapy needs to be investigated.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11673069 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

63: Fitoterapia. 2001 Aug;72(6):669/​70.

Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol.

Asha MK, Prashanth D, Murali B, Padmaja R, Amit A.

Bioassay Unit, Research and Development Centre, Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Plot
No. 5B, Veerasandra Indl. Area, Hosur Road, Bangalore 561 229, India.

The essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol, tested in vitro, showed potent
anthelmintic activity in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Eugenol exhibited an
ED(50) of 62.1 microg/ml. Eugenol being the predominant component of the
essential oil, is suggested as the putative anthelmintic principle.

PMID: 11543966 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Mar;39(3):185/​90.

Radioprotective, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of the Indian holy
basil, Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi).

Uma Devi P.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.
info@mahe.ernet.in

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't
Review

PMID: 11495275 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Feb;38(2):119/​28.

Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic
rasayanas.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti A.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum
sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris and shilajit, all of which are
classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and
mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity.
These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which
are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against
diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the
adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock
stress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism,
suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in
CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights,
ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, and plasma
corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was
used as the standard adaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain
levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress,
were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and MAOB
inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric
ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma
corticosterone levels, with concomitant decreases in spleen weight, and
concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects
were attenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.),
administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress
induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male
sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim despair test
and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention
of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), and immunosuppression
(leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema
in sensitized rats). All these chronic stress/​induced perturbations were
attenuated, dose/​dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg,
p.o.). Chronic stress/​induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also
reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results indicate that ST has
significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a
variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations induced by
unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of
clinical stress than acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the
individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the
polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11218827 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Mycoses. 2000 Sep;43(7/​8):299/​301.

Anti/​Cryptococcus activity of combination of extracts of Cassia alata and Ocimum
sanctum.

Ranganathan S, Balajee SA.

Centre for Biotechnology, SPIC Science Foundation, Guindy, Madras, India.

The paper reports the anti/​Cryptococcus activity of combination of ethanolic
extracts of leaves of Cassia alata and Ocimum sanctum. The activity of
combination of the extracts was heat/​stable and worked at acidic pH.

PMID: 11036400 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

67: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1/​2):81/​5.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum on noise induced changes in neutrophil functions.

Archana R, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical
Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, 600 113, Madras, India.

The effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum was studied on the noise
stress induced changes in albino rats. Acute noise stress caused leukopenia,
increased corticosterone level and enhanced the neutrophil functions as
indicated by an increase in the Candida phagocytosis and Nitro blue tetrazolium
(NBT) reduction. Pretreatment with the O. sanctum Linn. (OS) extract brought
back the stress altered values to normal levels indicating the stress
alleviating effect of O. sanctum.

PMID: 11025142 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Radiat Res. 2000 Oct;154(4):455/​60.

Radiation protection by the ocimum flavonoids orientin and vicenin: mechanisms
of action.

Uma Devi P, Ganasoundari A, Vrinda B, Srinivasan KK, Unnikrishnan MK.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College.

In previous studies, flavonoids, orientin and vicenin, that were isolated from
the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum, were found to protect mice against radiation
injury. Several flavonoids are known to be good antioxidants. Therefore, the
effect of orientin and vicenin on radiation/​induced lipid peroxidation in vivo
and their antioxidant activity in vitro were studied. Adult mice were injected
intraperitoneally with 50 microgram/kg of orientin or vicenin and exposed
whole/​body to 3 Gy of gamma radiation. Lipid peroxidation was measured in the
liver 15 min to 8 h postirradiation. The antioxidant activity of
orientin/vicenin (10/​500 microM) was studied by measuring inhibition of hydroxyl
radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (Fe(3+)/​EDTA/​ascorbic acid/​H(2)O(2))
in vitro. The compounds were also tested for possible pro/​oxidant and iron
chelation activities at the above concentrations in the in vitro system.
Orientin and vicenin provided almost equal protection against radiation/​induced
lipid peroxidation in mouse liver. Both compounds showed a significantly greater
free radical/​inhibiting activity in vitro than DMSO. Neither orientin nor
vicenin showed any pro/​oxidant activity at the concentrations tested. Both
compounds inhibited free radical formation in the absence of EDTA. Free radical
scavenging appears to be a likely mechanism of radiation protection by these
flavonoids.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11023610 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

69: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Sep;72(1/​2):29/​34.

Chemopreventive activity of Ocimum sanctum seed oil.

Prakash J, Gupta SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
110029, India.

The seed oil of Ocimum sanctum was evaluated for chemopreventive activity
against subcutaneously injected 20/​methylcholanthrene induced/​fibrosarcoma
tumors in the thigh region of Swiss albino mice. Supplementation of maximal
tolerated dose (100 microl/kg body weight) of the oil significantly reduced
20/​methylcholanthrene induced tumor incidence and tumor volume. The enhanced
survival rate and delay in tumor incidence was observed in seed oil supplemented
mice. Liver enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase,
glutathione/​S/​transferase), non/​enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) and
lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde levels were significantly
modulated with oil treatment as compared to untreated 20/​methylcholanthrene
injected mice. The results of this study suggest that the potential
chemopreventive activity of the oil is partly attributable to its antioxidant
properties. The chemopreventive efficacy of 100 microl/kg seed oil was
comparable to that of 80 mg/kg of vitamin E.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10967450 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Nov;37(11):1136/​8.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on vascular permeability and leucocytes
migration.

Singh S, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi), New Delhi, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil significantly inhibited the rise in protein
concentration and dye leakage in peritoneal fluid in experimentally induced
peritoneal inflammation in mice. In carrageenan/​induced pleurisy in rats, the
fixed oil showed significant inhibition of leucocytes migration in the pleural
exudate. The results suggest that the fixed oil can inhibit enhancement of the
vascular/capillary permability and leucocyte migration following inflammatory
stimulus.

PMID: 10783746 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

71: Phytomedicine. 2000 Mar;7(1):7/​13.

Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum
Linn.

Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, DeWitt DL.

Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology, Michigan
State University, USA.

Anti/​oxidant bioassay/​directed extraction of the fresh leaves and stems of
Ocimum sanctum and purification of the extract yielded the following compounds;
cirsilineol [1], cirsimaritin [2], isothymusin [3], isothymonin [4], apigenin
[5], rosmarinic acid [6], and appreciable quantities of eugenol. The structures
of compounds 1/​6 were established using spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 5
were isolated previously from O. sanctum whereas compounds 2 and 3 are here
identified for the first time from O. sanctum. Eugenol, a major component of the
volatile oil, and compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 demonstrated good antioxidant
activity at 10/​microM concentrations. Anti/​inflammatory activity or
cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of these compounds were observed. Eugenol
demonstrated 97% cyclooxygenase/​1 inhibitory activity when assayed at
1000/​microM concentrations. Compounds 1, 2, and 4/​6 displayed 37, 50, 37, 65,
and 58% cyclooxygenase/​1 inhibitory activity, respectively, when assayed at
1000/​microM concentrations. Eugenol and compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 demonstrated
cyclooxygenase/​2 inhibitory activity at slightly higher levels when assayed at
1000/​microM concentrations. The activities of compounds 1/​6 were comparable to
ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin at 10/​, 10/​, and 1000/​microM concentrations,
respectively. These results support traditional uses of O. sanctum and identify
the compounds responsible.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non/​P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 10782484 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Phytother Res. 2000 Mar;14(2):120/​1.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum roots extract on swimming performance in mice.

Maity TK, Mandal SC, Saha BP, Pal M.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur, Ganjam, Orissa /​ 760 002,
India.

The effect of a methanol extract, obtained from the roots of Ocimum sanctum, on
mouse swimming performance were studied using three different doses. On the
basis of our findings, a high dose (400 mg/kg, i.p.) of the extracts of Ocimum
sanctum increased the swimming time suggesting a central nervous system
stimulant and/or antistress activity. The effect produced by the extract was
comparable to that of desipramine, an antidepressant drug. Copyright 2000 John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 10685110 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Mar;37(3):262/​8.

Modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum and its role
in protection against radiation injury.

Devi PU, Ganasoundari A.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.
info@mahe.ernet.in

Aqueous extract (OE) of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has
been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage
and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. Therefore a study was
conducted to see if OE protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in
liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in
radioprotection by OE. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.)
with 10 mg/kg of OE for 5 consecutive days and exposed to 4.5 Gy of gamma
radiation 30 min after the last injection. Glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant
enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), reductase (GSRx), peroxidase (GSPx) and
superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as lipid peroxide (LPx) activity were
estimated in the liver at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr post/​treatment. LPx
was also studied after treatment with a single dose of 50 mg/kg of OE
with/without irradiation. OE itself increased the GSH and enzymes significantly
above normal levels whereas radiation significantly reduced all the values. The
maximum decline was at 30/​60 min for GSH and related enzymes and at 2 hr for
SOD. Pretreatment with the extract checked the radiation induced depletion of
GSH and all the enzymes and maintained their levels within or above the control
range. Radiation significantly increased the lipid peroxidation rate, reaching a
maximum value at 2 hr after exposure (approximately 3.5 times that of control).
OE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation and
accelerated recovery to normal levels. The results indicate that Ocimum extract
protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation and that GSH and the
antioxidant enzymes appear to have an important role in the protection.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10641157 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

74: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Nov 30;67(3):367/​72.

A comparative evaluation of some blood sugar lowering agents of plant origin.

Chattopadhyay RR.

Biometry Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.

A comparison of blood sugar lowering activity of four important medicinal plants
(Azadirachta indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Catharanthus roseus and Ocimum sanctum)
were carried out against normal and streptozotocin/​induced diabetic rat models.
The plant extracts decreased the blood sugar level in varying degrees. Blood
sugar lowering unit (BLU) of activity of each leaf extract and tolbutamide was
calculated by ED50 values. Statistical analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05)
variation among the treatments as well as doses with regard to their blood sugar
lowering capacity. A. indica leaf extract was found to have the most potent
blood sugar/​lowering activity followed by C. roseus, G. sylvestre and O.
sanctum.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 10617074 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275/​91.

Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Ayurveda Research Centre, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seth GS
Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India. kemarc@bom3.vsnl.net.in

Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax
ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum
sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential.
However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the
clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens
which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further
discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied
for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of
selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis,
Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered
orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose,
following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and
chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these
stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective
parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced
alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a
normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested.
All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while
Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced
intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability
to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal
macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse
serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the
direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant
drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies
on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced
immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress
induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked.
Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical
damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to
depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent
data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic
adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 10404532 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

76: Indian J Exp Biol. 1998 Oct;36(10):1028/​31.

Comparative evaluation of antiinflammatory potential of fixed oil of different
species of Ocimum and its possible mechanism of action.

Singh S.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi), Pushp Vihar, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil and linolenic acid found to possess significant
antiinflammatory activity against PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic acid/​induced
paw edema. The other species of Ocimum, viz. O. basilicum and O. americanum also
containing linolenic acid in varying proportions, also showed significant
inhibition of edema against carrageenan, PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic
acid/​induced paw edema. The fixed oil of O. basiliaum containing maximum
percentage of linolenic acid showed higher protection. The results suggests that
linolenic acid percent in the fixed oils of different species of Ocimum has the
capacity to block both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of
arachidonate metabolism and could be responsible for the antiinflammatory
activity.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 10356964 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

77: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Apr;65(1):13/​9.

Evaluation of the gastric antiulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum
(Holy Basil).

Singh S, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, India.

The fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae) was found to possess significant
antiulcer activity against aspirin/​, indomethacin/​, alcohol/​, histamine/​,
reserpine/​, serotonin/​ and stress/​induced ulceration in experimental animal
models. Significant inhibition was also observed in gastric secretion and
aspirin/​induced gastric ulceration in pylorus ligated rats. The lipoxygenase
inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory effects of the oil could
probably have contributed towards antiulcer activity. O. sanctum fixed oil may
be considered to be a drug of natural origin which possesses both
anti/​inflammatory and antiulcer activity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10350365 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

78: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Oct;41(4):429/​30.

Comment on:
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;41(2):139/​43.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone
level.

Dwivedi S.

Publication Types:
Comment
Letter

PMID: 10235670 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

79: Oral Oncol. 1999 Jan;35(1):112/​9.

Chemopreventive effect of Ocimum sanctum on DMBA/​induced hamster buccal pouch
carcinogenesis.

Karthikeyan K, Ravichandran P, Govindasamy S.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Madras, India.

Ocimum sanctum L., a plant having multi/​medicinal properties, has been
investigated for its chemopreventive activity against 7,12/​dimethylbenz (a)
anthracene (DMBA)/​induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. O. sanctum, in
the form of fresh leaf paste, aqueous extract and ethanolic extract were
topically applied and the extracts were orally administered to buccal pouch
mucosa of animals exposed to 0.5% of DMBA. Incidence of papillomas and squamous
cell carcinomas were significantly reduced, and increased the survival rate in
the topically applied leaf paste and orally administered extracts to animals.
Among them, the orally administered aqueous extract showed profound effect than
the other two forms. Histopathological observations made on the mucosa confirmed
these findings. Further fluorescent spectral studies at 405 nm excitation on the
mucosa of control, DMBA and extracts orally administered experimental animals
showed a prominent maxima at 430 nm for control, 628 nm for DMBA induced
carcinomas while aqueous and ethanolic extracts administered animals showed at
486 nm and 488 nm, respectively. The fluorescent intensity at 630 nm (FI630 nm)
was significantly reduced and the ratio of fluorescent intensities at 520 nm and
630 nm (FI520 nm/630 nm) were significantly increased in orally administered
extracts compared to DMBA treated animals. These observations suggest that the
orally administered extract of O. sanctum may have the ability to prevent the
early events of carcinogenesis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10211319 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

80: Radiat Res. 1999 Jan;151(1):74/​8.

In vivo radioprotection by ocimum flavonoids: survival of mice.

Uma Devi P, Ganasoundari A, Rao BS, Srinivasan KK.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Two flavonoids, orientin and vicenin, isolated from the leaves of the Indian
plant Ocimum sanctum were tested for their radioprotective effect in mice. Both
compounds provided protection against death from gastrointestinal syndrome as
well as bone marrow syndrome when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before
whole/​body exposure to 11 Gy gamma radiation. The optimum drug dose for
protection was 50 microg/kg body weight: An increase in the drug dose did not
increase protection. No acute toxicity was observed at doses as high as 100
mg/kg body weight of either compound. Maximum protection was obtained when
either compound was injected i.p. 30 min before irradiation. Changing the route
of administration or the interval between drug injection (i.p.) and irradiation
reduced protection. Drug treatment after irradiation was not very effective.
Vicenin was slightly better than orientin in increasing survival at 30 days;
protection by vicenin also lasted longer. Dose modification factors (DMFs) for
the LD50 were 1.37 for vicenin and 1.30 for orientin. Radical scavenging
activity has been demonstrated for both orientin and vicenin, and this appears
to be one of the mechanisms of protection by these flavonoids.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9973087 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

81: Br J Radiol. 1998 Jul;71(847):782/​4.

A comparative study of radioprotection by Ocimum flavonoids and synthetic
aminothiol protectors in the mouse.

Devi PU, Bisht KS, Vinitha M.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

The radioprotective effects of two flavonoids, orientin (Ot) and vicenin (Vc),
obtained from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, and the synthetic compounds WR/​2721
and MPG (2/​mercaptopropionyl glycine) have been compared by examining chromosome
aberration in cells of bone marrow in irradiated mice. Healthy adult Swiss mice
were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 micrograms kg/​1 body weight of Ot
or Vc; 20 mg kg/​1 of MPG; 150 mg kg/​1 of WR/​2721 or double distilled water
(DDW). They were exposed to whole body irradiation of 2.0 Gy gamma radiation 30
min later. After 24 h, chromosomal aberrations were studied in the bone marrow
of the femur by routine metaphase preparation after colchicine treatment.
Radiation (2 Gy) increased the number of aberrant cells from less than 1% in
controls to almost 20%. Pre/​treatment with all the protective compounds resulted
in a significant reduction in the percentage of aberrant metaphases as well as
in the different types of aberration scored. Vc produced the maximum reduction
in percent aberrant cells while MPG was the least effective; Ot and WR/​2721
showed an almost similar effect. However, WR/​2721 was the most effective against
reduction of complex an almost similar effect. However, WR/​2721 was the most
effective against reduction of complex aberrations, followed by Vc. Neither
flavonoids had any systemic toxicity, even at 200 mg kg/​1 body weight.
Considering the low dose needed for protection and the high margin between the
effective and toxic doses, the ocimum flavonoids may be promising for human
radiation protection.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9771390 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Pharmacol Res. 1998 Aug;38(2):107/​10.

Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid function in the male
mouse.

Panda S, Kar A.

School of Life Sciences, Vigyan Bhawan, Indore, India.

The effects of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on the changes in the concentrations
of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and serum cholesterol; in the
activities of hepatic glucose/​6/​phosphatase (G/​6/​P), superoxide dismutase (SOD)
and catalase (CAT); hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the changes in the
weight of the sex organs were investigated. While the plant extract at the dose
of 0.5 g kg/​1 body wt. for 15 days significantly decreased serum T4
concentrations, hepatic LPO and G/​6/​P activity, the activities of endogenous
antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT were increased by the drug. However, no marked
changes were observed in serum T3 level, T3/T4 ratio and in the concentration of
serum cholesterol. It appears that Ocimum sanctum leaf extract is antithyroidic
as well as antioxidative in nature.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9721597 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

83: Cancer Lett. 1998 Jun 19;128(2):155/​60.

Inhibition by an extract of Ocimum sanctum of DNA/​binding activity of
7,12/​dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rat hepatocytes in vitro.

Prashar R, Kumar A, Hewer A, Cole KJ, Davis W, Phillips DH.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of
Rajasthan, Jaipur, India.

Ocimum sanctum is a traditional medicinal plant. Previous studies have shown
that extracts of O. sanctum inhibit the induction of skin papillomas in mice by
7,12/​dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). In the present study, primary cultures of
rat hepatocytes were treated with 0/​500 microg of O. sanctum extract for 24 h
and then with DMBA (10 or 50 microg) for 18 h. Cells were then harvested and
their DNA was isolated and analyzed by 32P/​postlabelling. A significant
reduction in the levels of DMBA/​DNA adducts was observed in all cultures
pretreated with O. sanctum extract. This effect was more pronounced at the lower
dose of DMBA (10 microg). Hepatocytes which were treated with the highest dose
of extract (500 microg) showed a maximum reduction of 93% in the mean values of
DMBA/​DNA adducts. The viability of the cells was not adversely affected by
pretreatment with extract. Our findings suggest that O. sanctum leaf extract
blocks or suppresses the events associated with chemical carcinogenesis by
inhibiting metabolic activation of the carcinogen.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9683276 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

84: Mutat Res. 1998 Feb 2;397(2):303/​12.

Enhancement of bone marrow radioprotection and reduction of WR/​2721 toxicity by
Ocimum sanctum.

Ganasoundari A, Devi PU, Rao BS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

The radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (OE) in
combination with WR/​2721 (WR) was investigated on mouse bone marrow. Adult Swiss
mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with OE (10 mg/kg on 5 consecutive
days), or 100/​400 mg/kg WR (single dose) or combination of the two or
double/​distilled water (DDW) and whole/​body exposed to 4.5 Gy gamma/​irradiation
(RT). Metaphase plates were prepared from femur bone marrow on days 1, 2, 7 and
14 post/​treatment and chromosomal aberrations were scored. The maximum number of
aberrant cells was observed at 24 h after irradiation in all the groups.
However, pretreatment with OE or WR individually resulted in a significant
decrease in aberrant cells as well as different types of aberrations. The
combination of the two further enhanced this effect; resulting in a 2/​fold
increase in the protection factor (PF = 6.68) compared to 400 mg/kg WR alone.
The percent aberrant cells decreased linear/​quadratically with WR dose when
given individually, while in the OE + WR pretreatment animals the values showed
a linear dose response. Combination of OE with WR doses above 200 mg/kg
completely eliminated rings, polyploidy and pulverization of chromosomes.
Percent aberrant cells decreased with time in all groups, though the values
remained higher than normal even on day 14 in the RT alone as well as those
treated with single agent + RT. WR doses above 200 mg/kg before RT resulted in
significantly higher frequency of aberrant cells compared to RT and OE + RT
groups on day 14, suggesting delayed WR toxicity; but combination of OE with WR
brought down these values to normal level, indicating that OE combination, in
addition to enhancing WR protection, may also act as a detoxifier. The
protective effect of OE and WR is also reflected in the enhancement of bone
marrow CFU survival. Both OE and WR possessed significant free radical
scavenging activity in vitro. The combination of the two further enhanced this
effect, suggesting that the enhanced free radical scavenging activity by
combining the two protectors results in the higher bone marrow cell protection.
The significant elevation in chromosome protection obtained by combining OE with
WR, with reduction in the latter's toxicity at higher doses, suggests that the
combination may have promise for radioprotection in humans.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9541656 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

85: Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Oct;35(10):1128/​31.

Some Indian strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) lacking satellite RNA.

Raj SK, Chandra G, Singh BP.

Plant Virus Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Virus strains isolated from Ocimum sanctum and Zinnia elegans were identified as
cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strains on the basis of non/​persistant aphid
transmission, 28 nm particles, 26 kDa coat protein subunits and serological
relationships with CMV and chrysanthemum aspermy virus. The strains showed some
biological, serological and satellite RNA based differentiation with other CMV
strains isolated earlier from chrysanthemum, petunia and tobacco.

PMID: 9475049 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

86: Free Radic Res. 1997 Aug;27(2):221/​8.

Evaluation of antioxidant effectiveness of a few herbal plants.

Maulik G, Maulik N, Bhandari V, Kagan VE, Pakrashi S, Das DK.

University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030/​1110, USA.

We have screened a number of plants from the Indian soil for potential
antioxidant properties out of which fifteen extracts were found to be positive.
Leaves/bulk from the plants were crushed and extracted with organic solvents by
three different ways. The first group of plants were extracted with CHCL3:CH3OH
(2:1), evaporated, partitioned between petroleum ether and methanol (9:1),
aqueous methanolic part re/​partitioned between methanol:H2O (4:1) and
dichloromethane. Methanol was evaporated from the aqueous methanolic part and
extracted with n/​butanol. The second group of plants were extracted with
methanol followed by partitioning between petroleum ether and CH3OH. The rest of
the extraction procedure was the same as above. A third extraction procedure was
used for Ocimum sanctum which after extraction with CHCL3:CH3OH (2:1),
partitioned between CCL4 and CH3OH:H2O (9:1). Aqueous methanolic part was
repartitioned between CH3OH:H2O (4:1) and CHCl3 and CHCl3 soluble part was used
for the study. Free radical scavenging activities of the plant extracts were
examined by chemiluminescence method. Peroxyl radical was generated from
2,2'/​azobis(2/​amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), superoxide radical (O2/​)
from xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XO) and hydroxyl radical (OH) from
Xanthine/XO/FeCl3/ EDTA. In addition, O2/​ and OH. scavenging activities were
also determined by cytochrome C reduction and deoxyribose oxidation methods,
respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that these plant extracts
possess potent antioxidant activities.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 9350426 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

87: Br J Radiol. 1997 Jun;70(834):599/​602.

Modification of bone marrow radiosensensitivity by medicinal plant extracts.

Ganasoundari A, Zare SM, Devi PU.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone, and Plumbagin (Pl), a naphthoquinone,
from the roots of Withania somnifera and Plumbago rosea, respectively, have been
shown to possess growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects on experimental
mouse tumours. An aqueous extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OE) was found
to protect mice against radiation lethality. Therefore, the radiomodifying
effects of the above plant products on the bone marrow of the adult Swiss mouse
was studied. Single doses of WA (30 mg kg/​1) or Pl (5 mg kg/​1) were injected
intraperitoneally (ip) and OE (10 mg kg/​1) was injected ip once daily for five
consecutive days. Administration of extracts was followed by 2 Gy whole body
gamma irradiation. Bone marrow stem cell survival was studied by an exogenous
spleen colony unit (CFU/​S) assay. The effects of WA and Pl were compared with
that of cyclophosphamide (CP) and radioprotection by OE was compared with that
of WR/​2721 (WR). Radiation reduced the CFU/​S to less than 50% of normal. WA, CP
and Pl significantly enhanced this effect and reduced the CFU/​S to almost the
same extent (to < 20% of normal), although individually WA and Pl were less
cytotoxic than CP. These results indicate that radiosensitization by WA and Pl
is not tumour specific. OE significantly increased CFU/​S compared with
radiotherapy (RT) alone. OE+RT gave a higher stem cell survival (p < 0.05) than
that produced by WR+RT. While WR alone had a toxic effect, OE treatment showed
no such effect, suggesting that the latter may have an advantage over WR in
clinical application.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9227253 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

88: Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Apr;35(4):380/​3.

Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of fatty acids of Ocimum sanctum fixed
oil.

Singh S, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi) Pushp Vihar, New Delhi, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil and linolenic acid were found to possess significant
antiinflammatory activity against PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic acid/​induced
paw edema. Plant lipids like linseed oil and soyabean oil containing linolenic
acid when tested along with O. sanctum fixed oil, also showed significant
inhibition of carrageenan/​induced paw edema. The results suggest that linolenic
acid present in O. sanctum fixed oil has the capacity to block both the
cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonate metabolism and could be
responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of the oil.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9315239 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;41(2):139/​43.

Comment in:
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Oct;41(4):429/​30.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone
level.

Sembulingam K, Sembulingam P, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute,
Porur, Madras.

Ethanol extract of leaves of ocimum sanctum was screened for its antistressor
actions against acute and chronic noise stress in albino rats by investigating
the plasma corticosterone level in these animals. There was a significant
elevation of the corticosterone level in plasma of rats subjected to 30 min
noise (100 dB) stress. Chromic exposure (4 hr daily for 30 days) to noise with
same intensity reduced the hormonal level significantly. Treatment of animals
with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum prevented the changes in plasma level of
corticosterone induced by exposure to both acute and chronic noise stress,
indicating the antistressor property of the plant against noise.

PMID: 9142558 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

90: Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Mar;35(3):297/​9.

Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet
superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats.

Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Chakrabarti A.

Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and
hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells
was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia
and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an
Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora
cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had
little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in
euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once
daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose/​ related decrease
in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD
activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti/​hyperglycaemic
effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity,
the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet
SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals
in islet beta/​cells.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9332177 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

91: Mutat Res. 1997 Feb 3;373(2):271/​6.

Protection against radiation/​induced chromosome damage in mouse bone marrow by
Ocimum sanctum.

Ganasoundari A, Devi PU, Rao MN.

Department of Radiobiology, Dr. T.M.A. Pai Research Centre, Kasturba Medical
College, Manipal, India.

The radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (Ocimum
extract, OE) was investigated by taking chromosome aberrations as the end point.
Adult Swiss mice were whole/​body exposed to 1/​6 Gy of gamma radiation
with/without pretreatment with 10 mg/kg b.wt. of OE intraperitoneally for 5
consecutive days. Radiation was given 30 min after the last injection. Metaphase
plates were prepared from femur marrow on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 post/​treatment and
the frequency of aberrant cells and individual aberrations were scored. OE alone
did not have any significant effect on the chromosomes. Maximum percent of
aberrant cells was observed at 24 h in all the exposed groups. The percent
aberrant cells showed a linear quadratic increase with radiation dose, in both
radiation alone (RT) and OE + RT/​treated groups. Exchange (dicentrics and rings)
and multiple (pulverized and severely damaged cells) aberrations also showed a
similar response. However, the slopes of OE + RT was significantly shallower
than RT groups (p < 0.05). A dose/​modifying factor of 2.63 was obtained taking
percent aberrant cells for 2 Gy as the base. Progressive decline in the percent
aberrant cells as well as the number of aberrations with time after irradiation
was observed in both RT and OE + RT groups. OE treatment resulted in a faster
recovery compared to RT alone group. At doses below 3 Gy, OE pretreatment almost
completely eliminated the exchange aberrations from the cell population by day
2. Studies on a chemical system demonstrated that OE significantly reduced the
generation of hydroxyl radical; a lower dose of OE (1 mg/ml) was more effective
than 5 mg/ml and this effect was more pronounced than that produced by DMSO.
These results show that OE affords in vivo protection against radiation/​induced
cytogenetic damage. Free radical scavenging is a likely mechanism of OE
protection.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9042410 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1997;50(1):9/​16.

Effect of Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on blood sugar
levels, serum lipids and tissue lipids in diabetic rats.

Rai V, Iyer U, Mani UV.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, MS University of Baroda, Gujarat, India.

Tulasi leaf powder was fed at the 1% level in normal and diabetic rats for a
period of one month to explore the effect on fasting blood sugar, uronic acid,
total amino acids, and the lipid profile in serum and tissue lipids. The results
indicated a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar, uronic acid, total
amino acids, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids and total lipids. In
liver, total cholesterol, triglyceride and total lipids were significantly
lowered. Total lipids were significantly reduced in kidney. In heart, a
significant fall in total cholesterol and phospholipids was observed. All these
observations indicate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Tulasi in
diabetic rats.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9198110 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

93: Indian J Exp Biol. 1996 Dec;34(12):1212/​5.

Chemical and pharmacological studies on fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum.

Singh S, Majumdar DK, Yadav MR.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi) Pushp Vihar, India.

Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of fixed oil of O. sanctum revealed the
presence of five fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic
acids). The triglyceride fraction of the oil showed higher protection compared
to fixed oil against carrageenam/​induced paw edema and acetic acid/​induced
writhings in rats and mice, respectively. The pharmacological activity of the
fixed oil could be attributed to its triglyceride fraction or the fatty acids.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9246913 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

94: J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Oct;54(1):19/​26.

Evaluation of anti/​inflammatory potential of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum
(Holybasil) and its possible mechanism of action.

Singh S, Majumdar DK, Rehan HM.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi), New Delhi, India.

The fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Labiatae) was found to possess significant
anti/​inflammatory activity against carrageenan/​ and different other
mediator/​induced paw edema in rats. Significant inhibitory effect was also
observed in castor oil/​induced diarrhoea in rats. It also inhibited arachidonic
acid and leukotriene/​induced paw edema. The results of anti/​inflammatory
activity of Ocimum sanctum support the dual inhibition of arachidonate
metabolism as indicated by its activity in inflammation models that are
insensitive to selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors. On the basis of the findings
it may be inferred that Ocimum sanctum may be a useful anti/​inflammatory agent
which blocks both the pathways, i.e. cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, or
arachidonic acid metabolism.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8941864 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

95: Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Sep;34(9):406/​9.

Randomized placebo/​controlled, single blind trial of holy basil leaves in
patients with noninsulin/​dependent diabetes mellitus.

Agrawal P, Rai V, Singh RB.

Department of Home Science, Azad University of Agriculture and Technology,
Kanpur, India.

Experimental studies on albino rats reported that leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum
and Ocimum album (holy basil) had hypoglycemic effect. To explore further
evidence we studied the effects of treatment with holy basil leaves on fasting
and postprandial blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels in humans through
randomized, placebo/​controlled, crossover single blind trial. Results indicated
a significant decrease in fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels during
treatment with holy basil leaves compared to during treatment with placebo
leaves. Fasting blood glucose fell by 21.0 mg/dl, confidence interval of
difference /​31.4 /​ (/​)11.2 (p < 0.001), and postprandial blood glucose fell by
15.8 mg/dl, confidence interval /​27.0 /​ (/​)5.6 (p < 0.02). The lower values of
glucose represented reductions of 17.6% and 7.3% in the levels of fasting and
postprandial blood glucose, respectively. Urine glucose levels showed similar
trend. Mean total cholesterol levels showed mild reduction during basil
treatment period. The findings from this study suggest that basil leaves may be
prescribed as adjunct to dietary therapy and drug treatment in mild to moderate
NIDDM.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8880292 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

96: Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Aug;54(2):113/​21.

Minor and trace elemental determination in the Indian herbal and other medicinal
preparations.

Samudralwar DL, Garg AN.

Department of Chemistry, Nagpur University, India.

Medicinal plants described in the Indian "Ayurvedic" literature viz. Tulsi
(Ocimum sanctum), Gulvel (Tinospora cardifolia), bitter Neem (Azadirachta
indica), Kanher (Nerium Andicum), Vekhand (Acorus calamus), and Peacock's
feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron
activation analysis. The samples and the standards from the National Institute
of Standards and Technology, USA and IAEA, Vienna were irradiated for 5 min, 1
h, 5 h, and 10 h with thermal neutrons at a flux of 10(12)/​10(13) n cm/​2 s/​1 in
APSARA and CIRUS reactor at BARC, Bombay. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry
was performed using a 45 cm3 HPGe detector and a 4096 MCA system. Concentrations
of 13 elements were determined. Zinc, manganese, and sodium were significantly
higher in Tulsi leaves while zinc is higher in Neem leaves. Peacock's feathers
were found to be rich in manganese, iron, copper, and zinc. A high concentration
of mercury was also found in the peacock's feather ash. The therapeutic
significance in restoring ionic balance is discussed.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8886311 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

97: Hindustan Antibiot Bull. 1996 Feb/​Nov;38(1/​4):53/​6.

In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis
mangiferae.

Rai MK.

Department of Botany, Danielson College, Chhindwara, India.

A serious leaf/​spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10
years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and
cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae
which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of
17/​medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas
3/​plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula
acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by
Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum
sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and
Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha
curcas (10%).

PMID: 9676046 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

98: Cytobios. 1996;86(346):155/​65.

Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit/​rotting
fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

Damayanti M, Susheela K, Sharma GJ.

Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal, India.

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against
Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium
was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various
extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra
bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona
ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum
sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis
gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for
extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was
highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter/​sterilized extracts had a more
inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of
pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the
severity of the disease.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9022263 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

99: Nutr Cancer. 1996;25(2):205/​17.

Modulatory influence of alcoholic extract of Ocimum leaves on
carcinogen/​metabolizing enzyme activities and reduced glutathione levels in
mouse.

Banerjee S, Prashar R, Kumar A, Rao AR.

Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University,
New Delhi, India.

The present study reports the modulatory influence of alcoholic extract from the
leaves of Ocimum sanctum on the activities of cytochrome p/​450, cytochrome b5,
and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzymes in the liver and
glutathione/​S/​transferase and reduced glutathione level in the liver, lung, and
stomach of the mouse. Oral treatment with the leaf extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg
body wt for 15 days would significantly elevate the activities of cytochrome
p/​450 (p < 0.05), cytochrome b5 (p < 0.01, p < 0.001), aryl hydrocarbon
hydroxylase (p < 0.05), and glutathione S/​transferase (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), all
of which are important in the detoxification of carcinogens as well as mutagens.
Moreover treatment with 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt of Ocimum extract for 15 days
also significantly elevated extrahepatic glutathione/​S/​transferase (p < 0.05, p
< 0.01). The reduced glutathione level was also elevated by treatment with the
leaf extract in liver, lung, and stomach tissues (p < 0.01, p < 0.001). Mice fed
a diet containing 0.75% butylated hydroxyanisole (positive control) revealed no
alteration in the basal hepatic cytochrome p/​450 and aryl hydrocarbon
hydroxylase level, but hepatic cytochrome b5 and glutathione S/​transferase
activity in hepatic and extrahepatic organs were elevated in a time/​responsive
manner (p < 0.05, p < 0.001). The observations suggest further exploitation of
the Ocimum leaf extract or its active principle(s) for the chemoprevention of
chemical carcinogenesis in different animal model systems.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8710690 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

100: Indian J Exp Biol. 1995 Mar;33(3):205/​8.

Radioprotective effect of leaf extract of Indian medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum.

Devi PU, Ganasoundari A.

Department of Radiobiology, Dr. T.M.A. Pai Research Centre, Kasturba Medical
College, Manipal, India.

Water or aqueous ethanol extract of O. sanctum was given ip, either as a single
dose or multiple doses, before a whole/​body exposure to 11 Gy(LD100/30) of 60Co
gamma radiation in albino mice. The water extract was more effective and less
toxic than the aqueous ethanol extract. An optimum ip dose of 50 mg/kg (< 1/100
LD50) of the water extract, at 10 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, gave the
maximum survival. Increasing the dose per treatment or the number of treatments
did not increase protection. Intraperitoneal administration gave the best
protection (70% survival). Other routes (im, iv and po) were less effective and
produced 37/​47% survival. The optimum dose (ip) gave a dose modifying factor of
1.28. Since the extract may contain a number of chemical compounds, it is not
possible to attribute the observed protection to any particular compound at
present.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7601491 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

101: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1994 Oct;38(4):311/​2.

Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum
(Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

Sarkar A, Lavania SC, Pandey DN, Pant MC.

Department of Medicine, S.N. Medical College, Agra.

Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in
100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the
lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in
serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL/​cholesterol levels
and significant increase in the HDL/​cholesterol and total faecal sterol
contents.

PMID: 7883302 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

102: Anticancer Drugs. 1994 Oct;5(5):567/​72.

Chemopreventive action by an extract from Ocimum sanctum on mouse skin
papillomagenesis and its enhancement of skin glutathione S/​transferase activity
and acid soluble sulfydryl level.

Prashar R, Kumar A, Banerjee S, Rao AR.

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, India.

We report the chemopreventive property of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of
Ocimum sanctum (a traditional medicinal plant) on 7,12/​dimethylbenz[a]anthracene
induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice. A significant reduction
in the values of tumor incidence, average number of tumors per tumor bearing
mice and the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated
topically with the leaf extract of O. sanctum at either the peri/​initiational,
post/​initiational stages or continuously at peri/​ and post/​initiational stages
of papillomagenesis as compared to the corresponding control group. Topical
application of Ocimum leaf extract for 15 days resulted in significant 2/​fold
elevation of reduced glutathione content in the skin of mice (p < 0.05).
Similarly, glutathione S/​transferase activity was also observed to be
significantly elevated by 25% compared with the control group (p < 0.05)
following Ocimum extract treatment.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7858289 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

103: Indian J Exp Biol. 1993 Nov;31(11):891/​3.

Hypoglycemic effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in normal and streptozotocin
diabetic rats.

Chattopadhyay RR.

Biometry Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.

Oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves of O. sanctum led to marked
lowering of blood sugar level in normal, glucose fed hyperglycemic and
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Further the extract potentiated the action
of exogenous insulin in normal rats. The activity of the extract was 91.55 and
70.43% of that of tolbutamide in normal and diabetic rats respectively.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 8112763 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

104: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 Jan;37(1):91/​2.

Ocimum sanctum Linn/​/​a study on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion in
rats.

Mandal S, Das DN, De K, Ray K, Roy G, Chaudhuri SB, Sahana CC, Chowdhuri MK.

Department of Pharmacology, Burdwan Medical College, West Bengal.

The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in
pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL
reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic
administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous
secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic
property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce
acid secretion and increase mucous secretion.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 8449557 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

105: Planta Med. 1992 Dec;58(6):574.

New Constituents from Ocimum sanctum.

Norr H, Wagner H.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Munich, Karlstr. 29,
D(W)/​8000 Munchen 2, Federal Republic of Germany.

PMID: 17226526 [PubMed /​ in process]

106: Biochem Int. 1992 Dec;28(4):735/​44.

Intervention of adriamycin induced free radical damage.

Balanehru S, Nagarajan B.

Department of Microbiology and Tumor Biochemistry, Cancer Institute, Madras,
India.

The cumulative cardiotoxicity of Adriamycin (ADR) is a constraint on its
pharmacological use. The generation of drug induced oxygen radicals in heart
cells lead to cardiac lipid membrane peroxidation. We studied the free radical
scavenging potential of two compounds Oleanolic acid (OA) isolated from Eugenia
jumbolana and Ursolic acid (UA) isolated from Ocimum sanctum against ADR induced
lipid peroxidation both in liver and heart microsomes in vitro. In our attempt
in the management of cardiotoxicity, we have identified OA as a strong protector
against ADR induced lipid peroxidation and UA as a mild protector. Protection
with OA was 49% and 21% in liver and heart microsomes respectively. On combined
treatment, it increased to 69%. UA showed only 13% and 17% protection in liver
and heart microsomes. Two methods for the microsome preparation, Calcium
aggregation (CA) and Differential centrifugation (DC) were also compared. CA
seems to give a better microsomal preparation though the protection was about
the same.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1482409 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

107: Food Chem Toxicol. 1992 Nov;30(11):953/​6.

Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products.

Aruna K, Sivaramakrishnan VM.

Isotope Division, Cancer Institute, Adyar, Madras, India.

The anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy
vegetables were investigated. The effects of feeding the plant products on the
induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of Swiss mice by feeding
benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) and on the induction of hepatomas in Wistar rats by
feeding 3'/​methyl/​4/​dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB) were investigated. Among
the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn) and basil
leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) significantly decreased the incidence of both
B[a]P/​induced neoplasia and 3'MeDAB/​induced hepatomas. Poppy seeds (Papaver
somniferum Linn) significantly inhibited B[a]P/​induced neoplasia alone, while
the other plant products, asafoetida, kandathipili, turmeric, drumstick leaves,
solanum leaves and alternanthera leaves were ineffective. These results suggest
that cumin seeds, basil leaves and to a lesser extent poppy seeds, which are all
widely used in Indian cooking, may prove to be valuable anticarcinogenic agents.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1473788 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

108: Indian J Exp Biol. 1992 Jul;30(7):592/​6.

Mechanism of anti/​stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn, eugenol and Tinospora
malabarica in experimental animals.

Sen P, Maiti PC, Puri S, Ray A, Audulov NA, Valdman AV.

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi,
India.

Effects of restraint stress (RS) and its modulation by O. sanctum (Os), eugenol
and T. malabarica (Tm) were evaluated on some biochemical and biophysical
parameters in rats. RS induced elevations in blood glucose and urea levels, were
unaffected by either Os, eugenol or Tm pretreatment. However, both Os and
eugenol lowered RS/​induced cholesterol levels. RS also caused a generalized
increase in enzyme activity and Os, eugenol or Tm effectively lowered the
RS/​induced elevations in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase.
RS also induced (a) increased membrane protein clusterization, (b) increased
membrane fluidity and (c) reduced membrane thickness/​/​in RBC membrane, whereas,
the effects on the synaptosomal membrane were less marked. The RS/​induced
changes in RBC membrane dynamics were attenuated/reversed by Os, eugenol or Tm,
in a differential manner. These biochemical and membrane changes during Rs and
their modulation by the adaptogens are discussed in light of the possible
mechanisms of action of these agents, during such aversive stimuli.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1459632 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

109: Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1992 Jun;45(3):137/​50.

Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme of a filarial worm Setaria
digitata: some properties and effects of drugs and herbal extracts.

Banu MJ, Nellaiappan K, Dhandayuthapani S.

Department of Zoology, University of Madras, India.

Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and malic enzyme (mME) of a filarial
worm Setaria digitata were studied. mMDH exhibited the highest activities in the
oxidation and reduction reactions at pH 9.5 and pH 6.2, respectively, while mME
did so in the malate decarboxylation reaction at pH 6.8. mME showed no
detectable activity on the pyruvate carboxylation direction. The Km values for
malate (1.7 mM) and oxaloacetate (0.17 mM) and the ratio of Vmax oxidation: Vmax
reduction (2.73) tend to favor the oxaloacetate reduction by mMDH. mME showed a
relatively high Km value of 8.3 mM, for malate decarboxylation. A drug,
diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC/​C), did not change appreciably the activity of
either mMDH or mME, while filarin (a drug of herbal origin) effectively
inhibited mMDH. The leaf extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis and
Calotropis gigantea and leaf and flower extracts of Azadirachta indica were,
however, found to inhibit both mMDH and mME.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1291764 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992 Apr;36(2):109/​11.

Effect of short term administration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on
reproductive behaviour of adult male rats.

Kantak NM, Gogate MG.

Department of Physiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad.

Effect of feeding Tulsi leaves along with the normal diet, on the reproductory
behaviour of adult male Wistar rats, was studied. Experimental animals were
given Tulsi extract in graded doses of 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400
mg/kg along with the normal diet while control group only had similar normal
diet. Each dose was given for 15 days and reproductory behaviour monitored in
terms of score, on every alternative day. There was significant decrease in
sexual behavioural score, when Tulsi leaves extract dose was increased to 200
mg/kg and 400 mg/kg.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 1506071 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

111: Biochem Int. 1991 Jul;24(5):981/​90.

Protective effect of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid against lipid peroxidation.

Balanehru S, Nagarajan B.

Department of Microbiology & Tumor Biochemistry, Cancer Institute, Madras,
India.

In a search for plant products against cancer, the protective effect of two
plant products, ursolic acid isolated from Ocimum sanctum and oleanolic acid
from Eugenia jumbolana against free radical induced damage was studied. Three
different standard systems viz., ascorbic acid, carbon tetrachloride, ADP/Iron
were used to induce lipid peroxidation in isolated rat liver microsomes in
vitro. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid offered remarkable protection of 90%
and 60% respectively. Both the compounds did not induce lipid peroxidation by
themselves that improved the therapeutic application.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1776961 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

112: J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Feb;28(2):143/​50.

Preliminary psychopharmacological evaluation of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract.

Sakina MR, Dandiya PC, Hamdard ME, Hameed A.

Institute of History of Medicine and Medical Research, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi,
India.

An ethanol extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum was screened for its effects
on the central nervous system. It prolonged the time of lost reflex in mice due
to pentobarbital, decreased the recovery time and severity of electroshock/​ and
pentylenetetrazole/​induced convulsions, and decreased apomorphine/​induced
fighting time and ambulation in "open field" studies. Using a behavioural
despair model involving forced swimming in rats and mice, the extract lowered
immobility in a manner comparable to imipramine. This action was blocked by
haloperidol and sulpiride, indicating a possible action involving dopaminergic
neurones. In similar studies, there was a synergistic action when the extract
was combined with bromocriptine, a potent D2/​receptor agonist.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 2329804 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

113: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1990 Jan;34(1):61/​2.

A report on the effects of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves and seeds on blood and
urinary uric acid, urea and urine volume in normal albino rabbits.

Sarkar A, Pandey DN, Pant MC.

Publication Types:
Letter

PMID: 2361729 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

114: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1989 Jul/​Sep;33(3):197/​8.

A comparative study of the hypoglycemic action of the seeds and fresh leaves of
Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi).

Sarkar A, Pant MC.

Department of Biochemistry, S.N. Medical College, Agra.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 2592047 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

115: Indian J Med Sci. 1989 May;43(5):113/​7.

Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba
and Ocimum sanctum.

Phadke SA, Kulkarni SD.

Study of in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from the plants T. chebula,
E. alba and O. sanctum was carried out by the disk diffusion technique. All
showed such activity against human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative
bacteria. The activity against Salmonella organisms was shown only by T.
chebula; against Shigella organisms by T. chebula and E. alha; but not by O.
sanctum. The widest spectrum of antibacterial activity was shown by T. chebula.
It was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in between
that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of antibacterial
activity was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in
between that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of
antibacterial activity was observed in O. sanctum.

PMID: 2793213 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

116: J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 Dec;24(2/​3):193/​8.

Ocimum sanctum/​/​a preliminary study evaluating its immunoregulatory profile in
albino rats.

Godhwani S, Godhwani JL, Vyas DS.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sardar Patel Medical
College, Rajasthan, India.

A methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of Ocimum sanctum leaves were
investigated for their immunoregulatory profile to antigenic challenge of
Salmonella typhosa and sheep erythrocytes by quantifying agglutinating
antibodies employing the Widal agglutination and sheep erythrocyte agglutination
tests and E/​rosette formation in albino rats. The data of the study indicate an
immunostimulation of humoral immunologic response as represented by an increase
in antibody titre in both the Widal and sheep erythrocyte agglutination tests as
well as by the cellular immunologic response represented by E/​rosette formation
and lymphocytosis. The results of the study indicate an immunostimulant
capability for Ocimum sanctum which may be contributory in explaining the
adaptogenic action of the plant.

PMID: 3253489 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

117: Indian J Med Res. 1988 Apr;87:384/​6.

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on humoral immune responses.

Mediratta PK, Dewan V, Bhattacharya SK, Gupta VS, Maiti PC, Sen P.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 3169894 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

118: J Ethnopharmacol. 1987 Nov;21(2):153/​63.

Ocimum sanctum: an experimental study evaluating its anti/​inflammatory,
analgesic and antipyretic activity in animals.

Godhwani S, Godhwani JL, Vyas DS.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sardar Patel Medical
College, Rajasthan, India.

A methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of Ocimum sanctum inhibited acute
as well as chronic inflammation in rats as tested by carrageenan/​induced pedal
edema and croton oil/​induced granuloma and exudate, respectively. In both test
procedures, the anti/​inflammatory response of 500 mg/kg of methanol extract and
aqueous suspension was comparable to the response observed with 300 mg/kg of
sodium salicylate. Both the extract and suspension showed analgesic activity in
the mouse hotplate procedure and the methanol extract caused an increase in the
tail/​withdrawal reaction time of a subanalgesic dose of morphine. Both
preparations reduced typhoid/​paratyphoid A/B vaccine/​induced pyrexia. The
antipyretic action of the methanol extract and aqueous suspension was weaker and
of shorter duration than that of 300 mg/kg sodium salicylate. Oral premedication
with the methanol extract and the aqueous suspension delayed castor oil/​induced
diarrhoea in rats.

PMID: 3501819 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

119: Indian J Exp Biol. 1986 May;24(5):302/​4.

Effect of long term feeding of tulsi(Ocimum sanctum Linn) on reproductive
performance of adult albino rats.

Khanna S, Gupta SR, Grover JK.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3770821 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

120: Res Front Fertil Regul. 1982 Jun;2(1):1/​16.

Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

Farnsworth NR, Waller DP.

PIP: This report reviews research on plant/​derived agents that prevent sperm
production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on
contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop
fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and
enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant/​derived drug may have this
effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in
the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica
A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis
procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae);
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin)
Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium
species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa/​sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae
salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae);
Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae);
Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L.
(Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp.
(Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of
plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in
vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the
nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are
plant/​derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported
to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential
sources of sperm/​agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90
showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of
correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of
investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between
experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating
the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate
numbers of vehicle/​treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related
to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration,
diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species,
and problems in identifying plant names consistently.

PMID: 12179631 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

121: Indian J Exp Biol. 1981 Oct;19(10):975/​6.

Antispermatogenic effect of Ocimum sanctum.

Seth SD, Johri N, Sundaram KR.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7309144 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

122: Indian J Med Res. 1981 Mar;73:443/​51.

Anti/​stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Bhargava KP, Singh N.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7275241 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

123: Indian J Exp Biol. 1972 Jan;10(1):23/​5.

Antifertility effect of Ocimum sanctum L.

Kasinathan S, Ramakrishnan S, Basu SL.

PMID: 4344433 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

124: Indian J Med Res. 1971 May;59(5):777/​81.

The antifertility effect of ocimum sanctum and hibiscus rosa sinensis.

Batta SK, Santhakumari G.

PMID: 5097076 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

125: Indian J Med Res. 1969 May;57(5):893/​9.

Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early
pregnancy in albino rats.

Vohora SB, Garg SK, Chaudhury RR.

PIP: The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was
tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum
ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for
antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early
abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and
alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results
while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn.
flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea
Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats
delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age
of 1 month.

PMID: 5820437 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

126: Indian J Psychol. 1959 Apr;3(2):92/​100.

Some pharmacological actions of an extract of Ocimum sanctum; preliminary
observations.

KRISHNAMURTHY TR.

PMID: 13672648 [PubMed /​ OLDMEDLINE]  


 

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