India Herbs
INDIA HERBS - ANTICHI RIMEDI PER I TEMPI MODERNI
Title
Formula Ayurveda Approvata per Sano Sangue
PAGINA INIZIALE
INGREDIENTI
PHYTO PROFILO
I RISULTATI
Ayurveda
DOMANDE
TESTIMONIANZE
GARANZIA
ORDINATE
Webmasters
Distributor
Newsletter
Video
CHI SIAMO
CONTATTACI
Leading Edge News



Chiamaci al +1-800-721-0650

  In English
  En Franįais
  日本語
  Em Portuguęs
  En Espaņol

Holistic Education

vHolistics.com
vHolistics.com/brandnewme


 100% Estratti

MEDICO
APPROVAZIONE
Our Medical Board
Get a Consultation
Dr. C.D. Raviraj
Dr. Darshana Bairat
Dr. Fideliz Guttierez
Dr. Meena Shah

Click to verify BBB accreditation and to see a BBB report.

See All Products

View our Product Catalog
Download the PDF Version

Anche Visitare i Nostri Siti per:
Anti Aging
Arthritis
Beauty
Brain Power
Cardiovasculare
Cura Prostata
Disintossicazione
Immune Support
Lover's Yoga
Mood Support
Perdita di Peso
Potenza Maschile
Sessualitā Femminile
Sonno Aiuti
Strength
Virilitā Maschile
Yoga for Virility
 
Share Your Feedback, Questions, and Comments!




Tell Your Friends!


Studi Clinici

Sono presentati qui di seguito astratti per gli studi clinici su Indian Tinospora.

  • Nome Botanico: Tinospora Cordifolia

  • Nome Sanscrito: Guduchi

  • Nome Standardizzato: Indian Tinospora

Tinospora Cordifolia

Impianto Phytonutrient Profilo


1: Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Dec 5;6(12):1815/​24. Epub 2006 Aug 28.

Mechanism of macrophage activation by (1,4)/​alpha/​D/​glucan isolated from
Tinospora cordifolia.

Nair PK, Melnick SJ, Ramachandran R, Escalon E, Ramachandran C.

Research Institute, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, FL 33155, USA.

The signaling mechanism of the novel (1,4)/​alpha/​D/​glucan (RR1) isolated from
the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia was investigated in macrophages to
evaluate its immunostimulating properties. When RAW264.7 macrophages were
incubated with RR1 at 4 degrees C, the novel glucan inhibited the phagocytosis
of unopsonized zymosan A bioparticles in a dose/​dependent manner. RR1 also
inhibited the binding and internalization of opsonized zymosan A bioparticles,
although at a lower level than laminarin. Incubation of macrophages with
anti/​CD11b mAb followed by RR1 failed to show any inhibitory effect on
RR1/​induced TNF/​alpha synthesis confirming that complement receptor 3 (CR3) is
not involved in the opsonic binding and internalization of RR1 in macrophages
unlike zymosan A. The anti/​CD11b mAb has significant inhibitory effect on the
zymosan A/​induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/​alpha synthesis. RR1 induced
TNF/​alpha synthesis in macrophages in a dose/​dependent manner which can be
completely inhibited by the NF/​kappaB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester
(CAPE) or curcumin. RR1 activated NF/​kappaB in a time/​ and dose/​dependent manner
and this modulation of nuclear NF/​kappaB activity is associated with the
degradation of I/​kappaB alpha thus facilitating the translocation of NF/​kappaB
into the nucleus. RR1/​induced NF/​kappaB activity peaks at 8 h of RR1 stimulation
while I/​kappaB alpha degradation occurred within 1 h of stimulation. RR1/​induced
NF/​kappaB activation occurred through TLR6 signaling as evidenced by the
synthesis of IL/​8 in TLR6/​transfected HEK293 cells. These results show that the
novel (1,4)/​alpha/​D/​glucan from Tinospora cordifolia activates the immune system
through the activation of macrophages that occurs through TLR6 signaling,
NF/​kappaB translocation and cytokine production.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17052672 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Sep;44(9):726/​32.

Immunostimulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia Miers leaf extract in
Oreochromis mossambicus.

Sudhakaran DS, Srirekha P, Devasree LD, Premsingh S, Michael RD.

Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited, ICICI Knowledge Park, Hyderabad,
India.

Immunostimulatory effect of leaf extract of T. cordifolia on (i) specific
immunity (antibody response), (ii) non/​specific immunity (neutrophil activity)
and (iii) disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated in O.
mossambicus. Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves were used. Both
ethanol and petroleum ether extracts administered at doses of 0.8, 8 or 80 mg/kg
body weight, prolonged the peak primary antibody titres upto one to three weeks.
Ethanol extract at the dose of 8 mg/kg and petroleum ether extract at the doses
of 0.8 or 8 mg/kg enhanced the secondary antibody response. All the doses of
ethanol extract significantly enhanced neutrophil activity. Fish injected with
petroleum ether or ethanol extract at a dose of 8 mg/kg were protected against
experimental infection with virulent A. hydrophila. The results indicates the
potential of T. cordifolia leaf extracts for use as an immunoprophylactic to
prevent diseases in finfish aquaculture.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16999027 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

3: J Chromatogr Sci. 2006 Sep;44(8):504/​9.

Quantitative determination of four constituents of Tinospora sps. by a
reversed/​phase HPLC/​UV/​DAD method. Broad/​based studies revealing variation in
content of four secondary metabolites in the plant from different
eco/​geographical regions of India.

Ahmed SM, Manhas LR, Verma V, Khajuria RK.

Regional Research Laboratory, Canal Road, Jammu/​180001, India.

This paper describes the separation and quantitation of important markers, such
as 20beta/​hydroxyecdysone, tinosporaside, cordioside, and columbin, present in
three species of Tinospora viz, T. cordifolia, T. malabrica, and T. crispa. A
reverse/​phase (RP) high/​performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/​UV/​diode array
detection (DAD) method employing gradient elution is thus developed. The marker
compounds isolated from 70% ethanolic extract of T. cordfolia by repeated column
chromatography are identified on the basis of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and mass
spectral data. The compounds are separated on a RP (RP/​18, 5 microm, 250 x
4.6/​mm i.d.) column using water/​acetonitrile gradient and are detected by the
HPLC/​UV/​DAD method. The calibration curves that result from marker compounds in
the concentration range of 100/​2000 ng on column exhibit a good correlation
(r(2) > or = 0.99978). The method is successfully applied to separate and study
the content of four marker compounds in 40 different accessions of three
Tinospora species collected from different regions of India. The studies reveal
that the maximum amount of the marker compounds is present in Tinospora
cordifolia species, especially from accessions collected from higher altitudes
of the Jammu province (North India).

PMID: 16959127 [PubMed /​ in process]

4: J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):359/​63. Epub 2006 Aug 4.

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase
inhibitory activity.

Vinutha B, Prashanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R, Radhika S,
Amit A, Venkateshwarlu K, Deepak M.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Al/​Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road,
Bangalore, India.

Seventy/​six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts
from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase
(AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic
extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting
methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus
anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus
religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values
obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and
47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use
of these herbs for improvement of cognition.

PMID: 16950584 [PubMed /​ in process]

5: Altern Med Rev. 2006 Jun;11(2):128/​50.

Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal
immunomodulators.

Spelman K, Burns J, Nichols D, Winters N, Ottersberg S, Tenborg M.

Clinical Division, Department of Herbal Medicine, Tai Sophia Institute, 7750
Montpelier Road, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. spelman123@earthlink.net.

Modulation of cytokine secretion may offer novel approaches in the treatment of
a variety of diseases. One strategy in the modulation of cytokine expression may
be through the use of herbal medicines. A class of herbal medicines, known as
immunomodulators, alters the activity of immune function through the dynamic
regulation of informational molecules such as cytokines. This may offer an
explanation of the effects of herbs on the immune system and other tissues. For
this informal review, the authors surveyed the primary literature on medicinal
plants and their effects on cytokine expression, taking special care to analyze
research that utilized the multi/​component extracts equivalent to or similar to
what are used in traditional medicine, clinical phytotherapy, or in the
marketplace. METHODOLOGY: MEDLINE, EBSCO, and BIOSIS were used to identify
research on botanical medicines, in whole or standardized form, that act on
cytokine activity through different models, i.e., in vivo (human and animal), ex
vivo, or in vitro. RESULTS: Many medicinal plant extracts had effects on at
least one cytokine. The most frequently studied cytokines were IL/​1, IL/​6, TNF,
and IFN. Acalypha wilkesiana, Acanthopanax gracilistylus, Allium sativum, Ananus
comosus, Cissampelos sympodialis, Coriolus versicolor, Curcuma longa, Echinacea
purpurea, Grifola frondosa, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Polygala
tenuifolia, Poria cocos, Silybum marianum, Smilax glabra, Tinospora cordifolia,
Uncaria tomentosa, and Withania somnifera demonstrate modulation of multiple
cytokines. CONCLUSION: The in vitro and in vivo research demonstrates that the
reviewed botanical medicines modulate the secretion of multiple cytokines. The
reported therapeutic success of these plants by traditional cultures and modern
clinicians may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Phytotherapy
offers a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of many differing
conditions involving cytokines. Given the activity demonstrated by many of the
reviewed herbal medicines and the increasing awareness of the broad/​spectrum
effects of cytokines on autoimmune conditions and chronic degenerative
processes, further study of phytotherapy for cytokine/​related diseases and
syndromes is warranted.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 16813462 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):267/​72. Epub 2006 Apr 24.

Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Dichloromethane Extract of Guduchi (Tinospora
cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on Cultured HeLa Cells.

Jagetia GC, Rao SK.

Extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) have been shown to possess anti/​tumor
properties, but the mechanism of the anti/​tumor function of TCE is poorly
understood. This investigation elucidates the possible mechanism underlying the
cytotoxic effects of dichlormethane extracts of TCE, after selecting optimal
duration and concentration for treatment. HeLa cells were exposed to various
concentrations of TCE, which has resulted in a concentration/​dependent decline
in the clonogenicity, glutathione/​S/​transferase (GST) activity and a
concentration/​dependent increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) with a peak at 4
h and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release with a peak at 2 h. Our results
suggest that the cytotoxic effect of TCE may be due to lipid peroxidation and
release of LDH and decline in GST.

PMID: 16786058 [PubMed /​ in process]

7: Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006 Oct;21(4):372/​84. Epub 2006 May 12.

Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome
virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to
haematological, biochemical and immunological changes.

Citarasu T, Sivaram V, Immanuel G, Rout N, Murugan V.

Fish Developmental Genetics and Cell Engineering, State Key Laboratory of
Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Wuchang, Wuhan 430072, PR China. citarasu@gmail.com

Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non/​specific defence
mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro/​organism.
In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic
extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle
marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected
and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented
with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(/​1)
through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A/​D) were fed
individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight
of 8.0+//​0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also
fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps
were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected
crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal
immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal
immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(/​1))
significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral
load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and
immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed
shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal
immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they
can be recommended for shrimp culture.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16698283 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2006 Jan/​Feb;61(1/​2):118/​22.

Identification of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook F & Thomas using
RAPD markers.

Rout GR.

Plant Biotechnology Division, Regional Plant Resource Centre,
Bhubaneswar/​751015, Orissa, India. grrout@hotmail.com

Identified germplasm is an important component for efficient and effective
management of plant genetic resources. Traditionally, plant identification has
relied on morphological characters like growth habit, floral morphology like
flower colour and other characteristics of the plant. Studies were undertaken
for identification and genetic variation within 15 clones of Tinospora
cordifolia through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Analysis was
made using forty decamer primers. Out of them, 15 primers were selected and used
for identification and genetic relationships within 15 clones. A total of 138
distinct DNA fragments ranging from 0.2 to 3.2 kb were amplified using 15
selected random primers. The genetic similarity was evaluated on the basis of
presence or absence of bands. The genetic distance was very close within the
clones. Thus, these RAPD markers have the potential for identification of
species and characterization of genetic variation within the population. This
study will be helpful to know the genetic background of the medicinal plants
with high commercial value, and also provides a major input into conservation
biology.

PMID: 16610228 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Mar;29(3):460/​6.

Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in
Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice.

Jagetia GC, Rao SK.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.
gc.jagetia@gmail.com

The anticancer activity of dichloromethane extract of guduchi [Tinospora
cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms. Family: Menispermaceae (TCE)] in
the mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated. The
EAC mice receiving 25, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mg/kg, TCE showed a dose dependent
elevation in tumor/​free survival and a highest number of survivors were observed
at 50 mg/kg TCE, which was considered as an optimum dose for its neoplastic
action. The average survival time (AST) and median survival time (MST) for this
dose were approximately 56 and 55 d, respectively when compared with 19 d of
non/​drug treated controls. Administration of 50 mg/kg TCE resulted in 100%
long/​term survivors (up to 90 d). An attempt was also made to evaluate the
effectiveness of TCE in the various stages of tumor development, where 50 mg/kg
TCE was administered intraperitoneally after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 d of tumor
inoculation and these days have been arbitrarily designated as stage I, II, III,
IV or V, respectively for reasons of clarity. The greatest anticancer activity
was recorded for stage I, II and III where number of long term survivors (LTS)
was approximately 33, 25 and 17%, respectively. However, treatment of mice at
stage IV and V did not increase LTS, despite an increase in AST and MST. The EAC
mice receiving 50 mg/kg TCE showed a time dependent depletion in the glutathione
(GSH) activity up to 12 h post/​treatment and marginal elevation thereafter. This
depletion in GSH was accompanied by a drastic elevation in lipid peroxidation
(LPx) and a maximum elevation in LPx was observed at 6 h that declined gradually
thereafter. TCE exerted cytotoxic effect on tumor cells by reducing the GSH
concentration and increase in LPx simultaneously.

PMID: 16508146 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(4):585/​99.

Restoration of thymic homeostasis in a tumor/​bearing host by in vivo
administration of medicinal herb Tinospora cordifolia.

Singh N, Singh SM, Prakash, Singh G.

School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India.

In vivo administration of alcoholic extract of medicinal plant Tinospora
cordifolia (TC) to mice bearing a spontaneous T cell lymphoma designated as
Dalton's lymphoma prevented tumor growth/​dependent regression of thymus. TC was
found to augment proliferation of thymocytes with a concomitant decrease in
thymocyte apoptosis. It also resulted in a decrease in the number of Hassal's
corpuscles. Restoration of thymus homeostasis was caused by TC/​dependent
augmentation in production of thymocyte growth promoting cytokines Interleukin/​2
and Interferon/​gamma from thymocytes. TC was found to downregulate thymocyte
apoptosis by modulation of Caspase pathway. TC administration retarded tumor
growth and prolonged survival of tumor/​bearing mice. The possible mechanisms are
discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16435578 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Phytomedicine. 2006 Jan;13(1/​2):74/​84. Epub 2005 Jun 29.

Tinospora cordifolia induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and
antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice.

Singh RP, Banerjee S, Kumar PV, Raveesha KA, Rao AR.

Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University,
New Delhi 110067, India. Rana.Singh@UCHS.edu

The present study is an effort to identify a potent chemopreventive agent
against various diseases (including cancer) in which oxidative stress plays an
important causative role. Here, we investigated the effect of a hydroalcoholic
(80% ethanol: 20% distilled water) extract of aerial roots of Tinospora
cordifolia (50 and 100mg/kg body wt./day for 2 weeks) on carcinogen/drug
metabolizing phase/​I and phase/​II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione
(GSH) content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in liver of
8/​week/​old Swiss albino mice. The modulatory effect of the extract was also
examined on extrahepatic organs, i.e., lung, kidney and forestomach, for the
activities of GSH S/​transferase (GST), DT/​diaphorase (DTD), superoxide dismutase
(SOD) and catalase. Significant increases in the levels of acid/​soluble
sulfhydryl (/​SH) and cytochrome P(450) contents, and enzyme activities of
cytochrome P(450) reductase, cytochrome b(5) reductase, GST, DTD, SOD, catalase,
GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR) were observed in the liver. Both
treated groups showed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. In lung SOD,
catalase and GST; in kidney SOD and catalase; and in forestomach SOD, DTD and
GST showed significant increase at both dose levels of treatment. BHA (0.75%,
w/w in diet), a pure antioxidant compound, was used as a positive control. This
group showed increase in hepatic levels of GSH content, cytochrome b(5), DTD,
GST, GR and catalase, whereas MDA formation was inhibited significantly. In the
BHA/​treated group, the lung and kidney showed increased levels of catalase, DTD
and GST, whereas SOD was significantly increased in the kidney and forestomach;
the latter also showed an increase in the activities of DTD and GST. The
enhanced GSH level and enzyme activities involved in xenobiotic metabolism and
maintaining antioxidant status of cells are suggestive of a chemopreventive
efficacy of T. cordifolia against chemotoxicity, including carcinogenicity,
which warrants further investigation of active principle (s) present in the
extract responsible for the observed effects employing various carcinogenesis
models.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16360936 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Dec;28(12):2319/​22.

Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in
ischemia/​reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats.

Rao PR, Kumar VK, Viswanath RK, Subbaraju GV.

Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University,
Pradesh, India. rajeswararaopragada@rediffmail.com

It has been suggested that the beneficial effects of reperfusing the myocardium
might be in part reversed by the occurrence of reperfusion injury. Oxidative
stress was suggested to be implicating in the pathogenesis of
ischemia/​reperfusion (I/R) injury. Many antioxidative plants were shown to be
cardioprotective in experimental models of myocardial ischemia/​reperfusion (I/R)
injury. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of
pretreatment with alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in an in vivo rat
model. The model adopted was that of surgically/​induced myocardial ischemia,
performed by means of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion (LAD)
for 30 min followed by reperfusion for another 4 h. Infarct size was measured by
using the staining agent TTC (2,3,5/​triphenyl tetrazolium chloride). Lipid
peroxide levels in serum and in heart tissue were estimated
spectrophotometrically by the methods developed by Yagi and Ohkawa et al.
respectively. A lead II electrocardiogram was monitored at various intervals
throughout the experiment. A dose dependent reduction in infarct size and in
lipid peroxide levels of serum and heart tissue were observed with the prior
treatment of T. cordifolia with various doses for 7 d compared to control
animals. Hence, the present study suggests the cardioprotective activity of T.
cordifolia in limiting ischemia/​reperfusion induced myocardial infarction.

PMID: 16327173 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Fitoterapia. 2006 Jan;77(1):1/​11. Epub 2005 Dec 2.

Effect of alcoholic extract of Ayurvedic herb Tinospora cordifolia on the
proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells in a
tumor/​bearing host.

Singh SM, Singh N, Shrivastava P.

School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi/​221 005, U.P.,
India. sukh2001@sify.com

The present study investigates the effect of in vivo administration of alcoholic
extract of Tinospora cordifolia whole plant (ALTC) on the proliferation and
myeloid differentiation of bone marrow hematopoietic precursor cells in mice
bearing a transplantable T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin designated as
Dalton's lymphoma (DL). BMC obtained from ALTC administered DL/​bearing mice
showed an enhanced BMC proliferation and colony forming ability in vitro in
response to L929 conditioned medium as a source of colony stimulating factor
(CSF). The number of granulocyte/​macrophages colony (CFU/​GM) was predominantly
higher in the cultures of BMC obtained from ALTC administered mice as compared
to mice injected with PBS alone. An increase in the count of bone marrow derived
macrophages (BMDM) from ALTC administered mice was also observed along with an
increase in the count of tumor associated macrophages. The BMDM obtained from
ALTC administered mice showed an enhanced response to signal of LPS for
activation to produce IL/​1 and TNF. This study indicates that the T. cordifolia
can influence the myeloid differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells and
the recruitment of macrophages in response to tumor growth in situ.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16326030 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Biotechnol Prog. 2005 Nov/​Dec;21(6):1688/​91.

Enhanced production of the polysaccharide arabinogalactan using immobilized
cultures of Tinospora cordifolia by elicitation and in situ adsorption.

Roja G, Bhangale AS, Juvekar AR, Eapen S, D'Souza SF.

Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Trombay, Mumbai 4000 85, India. groja@magnum.barc.ernet.in

Immobilized callus cultures of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex Hooks and
Thoms were investigated to find out the combined effect of elicitation, cell
permeabilization with chitosan and in situ product recovery by polymeric neutral
resin/​like Diaion HP 20. In this study, callus cultures of T. cordifolia were
immobilized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride and the beads were
cultured in Murashige and Skoog's basal medium along with benzyl adenine (BA),
2,4/​dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4/​D) and 3% sucrose. The immobilized
cultures, when subjected to elicitation and cell permeabilization with chitosan
and in situ removal of the secondary metabolites by addition of resin, showed a
10/​fold increase in production of arabinogalactan (0.490% dry weight) as
compared to respective controls devoid of resin and chitosan. This indicates
that in situ adsorption may have reduced the feedback inhibition caused by
accumulation of secondary metabolites in the media, while the dual effect of
elicitation and cell permeabilization by chitosan may have released the
intracellular (secreted) berberine and the polysaccharide arabinogalactan,
respectively.

PMID: 16321052 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec;76(7/​8):697/​9. Epub 2005 Oct 17.

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from India.

Samy RP.

Venom and Toxin Research Programme, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine,
MD 10, 4 Medical Drive, National University of Singapore, Singapore/​ 117597.
antrps@nus.edu.sg

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of
Zingiber officinale, Asteracantha longifolia, Citrus acida, Salacia microsperma
and Tinospora cordifolia are reported.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16229969 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

16: J Vector Borne Dis. 2005 Mar;42(1):36/​8.

Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of hyper/​reactive
malarious splenomegaly/​/​case reports.

Singh RK.

District Hospital, Daltonganj, Jharkhand, India. dr_ranjankumarsingh@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia,
an immunomodulator with antimalarial activity along with chloroquine was studied
in the treatment of three cases of hyper/​reactive malarious splenomegaly in
District Hospital, Daltonganj town, Jharkhand, India. These cases were
partial/slow responders to the conventional antimalarial drug chloroquine.
METHODS: Aqueous extract of T. cordifolia (500 mg) was added to chloroquine (CQ)
base (300 mg) weekly and CQ prophylaxis was observed up to six months.
Improvement was gauzed by measuring spleen enlargement, Hb, serum IgM and
well/​being in three cases of hyper/​reactive malarious splenomegaly. RESULTS:
Addition of extract of T. cordifolia for the first six weeks to chloroquine
showed regression of spleen by 37/​50% after six weeks and 45/​69% after six
months from the start of treatment. Likewise decrease in IgM and increase in Hb
as well as wellbeing (Karnofsky performance scale) were observed. CONCLUSION:
The results of the present study paves a new sight in the treatment of
hyper/​reactive malarious splenomegaly, however, large/​scale trial is required to
confirm the beneficial effect of T. cordifolia extract in combination with
chloroquine.

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 15999460 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):264/​70.

Anti/​ulcer and anti/​oxidant activity of pepticare, a herbomineral formulation.

Bafna PA, Balaraman R.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University
of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Baroda 390 001, Gujarat, India.

Pepticare, a herbomineral formulation of the Ayurveda medicine consisting of the
herbal drugs: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia,
was tested for its anti/​ulcer and anti/​oxidant activity in rats. Effects of
various doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg, p.o.) of Pepticare were studied on
gastric secretion and gastric ulcers in pylorus/​ligation and on ethanol/​induced
gastric mucosal injury in rats. The reduction in ulcer index in both the models
along with the reduction in volume and total acidity, and an increase in the pH
of gastric fluid in pylorus/​ligated rats proved the anti/​ulcer activity of
Pepticare. It was also found that Pepticare was more potent than G. glabra alone
in protecting against pylorus/​ligation and ethanol/​induced ulcers. The increase
in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and
membrane bound enzymes like Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase and Na+ K+ ATPase and
decrease in lipid peroxidation in both the models proved the anti/​oxidant
activity of the formulation. Thus it can be concluded that Pepticare possesses
anti/​ulcer activity, which can be attributed to its anti/​oxidant mechanism of
action.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15898703 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(1):1/​14.

Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the antitumor activity of tumor/​associated
macrophages/​derived dendritic cells.

Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P.

School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh,
India.

We and others previously have reported that extract prepared from medicinal
plant Tinospora cordifolia shows a wide spectrum of immunoaugmentary effects.
Tinospora cordifolia was shown to upregulate antitumor activity of
tumor/​associated macrophages (TAM). In this article we present evidence to show
that an alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (ALTC) enhances the
differentiation of TAM to dendritic cells (DC) in response to
granulocyte/macrophage/​colony/​stimulating factor, interleukin/​4, and tumor
necrosis factor. DC differentiated in vitro from TAM that were harvested from
tumor/​bearing mice after i.p. administration of ALTC (200 mg/kg body weight) 2
days posttumor transplantation shows an enhanced tumor cytotoxicity and
production of tumoricidal soluble molecules like TNF, IL/​1, and NO. Adoptive
transfer of these TAM/​derived DC to Dalton's lymphoma/​bearing mice resulted in
prolongation of survival of tumor/​bearing mice. This is the first report
regarding the differentiation and antitumor functions of TAM/​derived DC obtained
from tumor/​bearing host administered with ALTC. The possible mechanisms involved
also are discussed.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15803856 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

19: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;96(3):445/​9. Epub 2004 Nov 23.

Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis.

Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, Shrivastava MP, Gharpure KJ, Hingorani LL,
Khiyani RM.

Department of Pharmacology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Nagpur 440018, India.

The efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extract in patients of allergic
rhinitis was assessed in a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial.
Seventy/​five patients were randomly given either TC or placebo for 8 weeks. They
were clinically examined and Hb %, TLC, DLC and nasal smear was done. At the end
of trial baseline investigations were repeated, drug decoded and results
analyzed. With TC treatment 100% relief was reported from sneezing in 83%
patients, in 69% from nasal discharge, in 61% from nasal obstruction and in 71%
from nasal pruritus. In placebo group, there was no relief in 79% from sneezing,
in 84.8% from nasal discharge, in 83% from nasal obstruction, and in 88% from
nasal pruritus. The difference between TC and placebo groups was highly
significant. TLC increased in 69% patients in drug treated group and in only 11%
with placebo. After TC, eosinophil and neutrophil count decreased and goblet
cells were absent in nasal smear. After placebo, decrease in eosinophil and
neutrophil count was marginal and goblet cells were present. TC significantly
decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Nasal smear cytology and leukocyte
count correlated with clinical findings. TC was well tolerated.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 15619563 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Acta Pol Pharm. 2004 Jul/​Aug;61(4):283/​7.

Restoration of antioxidants by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan/​induced
diabetic Wistar rats.

Prince PS, Kamalakkannan N, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar/​608 002, Tamil
Nadu, India.

The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of an alcoholic
extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots on antioxidant defence in alloxan/​induced
diabetes in rats. A significant increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric
acid reactive substances (TBARS) in brain along with a decrease in heart was
observed in diabetic rats. Decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and
decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione
peroxidase (GPx) in heart and brain of diabetic rats were also noted. Alcoholic
Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCREt) administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg to
diabetic rats orally for six weeks normalized the antioxidant status of heart
and brain. The effect of T. cordifolia root extract was more prominent than
glibenclamide (600 microg/kg). Insulin (6 units/kg) restored all the parameters
to normal status.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15575595 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Zhong Yao Cai. 2001 Nov;24(11):823/​5.

[A herbalogical study on traditional Mongolian medicine "lideri"]

[Article in Chinese]

Bao Y, Zhao B, Bu R.

College of Traditional Mongolian Medicine and Pharmacy, Inner Mongolia National
University, Tongliao 028041.

By herbalogical study and investigation, "lideri" used by Mongolia doctors in
different areas mainly contains 10 species from 4 genera of 4 families, but the
quality materials only contains 3 species, Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr., T.
cordifolia Miers and T. capillipes Gagnep.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15575169 [PubMed /​ in process]

22: J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Nov;56(11):1435/​42.

Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of hyponidd, an ayurvedic herbomineral
formulation in streptozotocin/​induced diabetic rats.

Babu PS, Stanely Mainzen Prince P.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar/​608 002, Tamil
Nadu, India.

Hyponidd is a herbomineral formulation composed of the extracts of ten medicinal
plants ( Momordica charantia, Melia azadirachta, Pterocarpus marsupium,
Tinospora cordifolia , Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale, Emblica
officinalis, Eugenia jambolana, Cassia auriculata and Curcuma longa). We have
investigated hyponidd for its possible antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect
in diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg
kg(/​1) body weight). Oral administration of hyponidd (100 mg kg(/​1) and 200 mg
kg(/​1)) for 45 days resulted in significant lowered levels of blood glucose and
significant increased levels of hepatic glycogen and total haemoglobin. An oral
glucose tolerance test was also performed in experimental diabetic rats in which
there was a significant improvement in blood glucose tolerance in the rats
treated with hyponidd. Hyponidd administration also decreased levels of
glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances,
hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and alpha/​tocopherol in diabetic rats. Plasma
reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral
administration of hyponidd. The effect of hyponidd at a dose of 200 mg kg(/​1)
was more effective than glibenclamide (600 microg kg(/​1)) in restoring the
values to near normal. The results showed that hyponidd exhibits
antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in STZ/​induced diabetic rats.

PMID: 15525451 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Phytother Res. 2004 Sep;18(9):785/​7.

Restoration of antioxidant defence by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia root
extract in alloxan/​induced diabetic liver and kidney.

Prince PS, Padmanabhan M, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu,
India.

The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of an alcoholic
extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots on antioxidant defence in alloxan/​induced
diabetes in rats. A significant increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric
acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and kidney was observed in diabetic
rats. Decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and decreased activities of
superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in liver and kidney of diabetic rats
were also noted. Alcoholic Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCREt)
administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats orally for six
weeks normalized the antioxidant status of liver and kidney. The effect of
Tinospora cordifolia root extract was more potent than glibenclamide (600
microg/kg body weight). Insulin (6 units/kg) restored all the parameters to
normal status. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 15478189 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Nov 12;324(2):588/​96.

Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on
free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen/​glucose deprivation
in rat hippocampal slices.

Rawal A, Muddeshwar M, Biswas S.

SMV Center for Biotechnology, Sindhu Mahavidyalaya, Panchpaoli, Nagpur, MS
440017, India.

The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the
generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis, and ultimately
cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC), and Tinospora
cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and
have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders.
Hippocampal slices were subjected to oxygen/​glucose deprivation (OGD) and
divided into three groups, control, OGD, and OGD+drug treated. Cytosolic reduced
glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide [NO, measured as nitrite (NO2)]. EPR was used to
establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC, and TC with respect to superoxide
anion (O*2/​), hydroxyl radicals (*OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical, and
peroxynitrite anion (ONOO/​) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA/​NO, and
Sin/​1, respectively. RT/​PCR was performed for the three herbs to assess their
effect on the expression of gamma/​glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), iNOS, and
GAPDH gene expression. All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH
levels and expression of the GCLC. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical
scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as revealed
by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, diminishing the expression of
iNOS gene. RC, FC, and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell
injury during OGD and exert the above effects at both the cytosolic as well as
at gene expression levels and may be effective therapeutic tool against ischemic
brain damage.

PMID: 15474468 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 15;4(13):1645/​59.

Immune stimulating properties of a novel polysaccharide from the medicinal plant
Tinospora cordifolia.

Nair PK, Rodriguez S, Ramachandran R, Alamo A, Melnick SJ, Escalon E, Garcia PI
Jr, Wnuk SF, Ramachandran C.

Research Institute, Miami Children's Hospital, 3100 SW 62nd Avenue, Miami, FL
33155, USA.

An alpha/​D/​glucan (RR1) composed of (1/​/​>4) linked back bone and (1/​/​>6) linked
branches with a molecular mass of >550 kDa and exhibiting unique immune
stimulating properties is isolated and characterized from the medicinal plant
Tinospora cordifolia. This novel polysaccharide is noncytotoxic and
nonproliferating to normal lymphocytes as well as tumor cell lines at 0/​1000
microg/ml. It activated different subsets of the lymphocytes such as natural
killer (NK) cells (331%), T cells (102%), and B cells (39%) at 100 microg/ml
concentration. The significant activation of NK cells is associated with the
dose/​dependent killing of tumor cells by activated normal lymphocytes in a
functional assay. Immune activation by RR1 in normal lymphocytes elicited the
synthesis of interleukin (IL)/​1beta (1080 pg/ml), IL/​6 (21,833 pg/ml), IL/​12 p70
(50.19 pg/ml), IL/​12 p40 (918.23 pg/ml), IL/​18 (27.47 pg/ml), IFN/​ gamma (90.16
pg/ml), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/​alpha (2225 pg/ml) and monocyte
chemoattractant protein (MCP)/​1 (2307 pg/ml) at 100 microg/ml concentration,
while it did not induce the production of IL/​2, IL/​4, IL/​10, interferon
(IFN)/​alpha and TNF/​beta. The cytokine profile clearly demonstrates the Th1
pathway of T helper cell differentiation essential for cell mediated immunity,
with a self/​regulatory mechanism for the control of its overproduction. RR1 also
activated the complements in the alternate pathway, demonstrated by a stepwise
increase in C3a des Arg components. Incidentally, RR1 stimulation did not
produce any oxidative stress or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the
lymphocytes or any significant increase in nitric oxide production. The water
solubility, high molecular mass, activation of lymphocytes especially NK cells,
complement activation, Th1 pathway/​associated cytokine profile, together with a
low level of nitric oxide synthesis and absence of oxidative stress confer
important immunoprotective potential to this novel alpha/​D/​glucan.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15454117 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 15;4(13):1569/​75.

Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the cytokine profile of angiogenesis/​induced
animals.

Leyon PV, Kuttan G.

Department Immunology, Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amalanagar, P.O. Thrissur,
Kerala 680555, India.

The antiangiogenic activity of Tinospora cordifolia was studied using in vivo as
well as in vitro models. In vivo antiangiogenic activity was studied using
B16F10 melanoma cell/​induced capillary formation in animals. Intraperitoneal
administration of the extract at a concentration of 20 mg/kg significantly
inhibited the tumour directed capillary formation induced by melanoma cells.
Analysis of the serum cytokine profile showed a drastic increase of
proinflammatory cytokines such as IL/​1beta, IL/​6, TNF/​alpha, granulocyte
monocyte/​colony stimulating factor (GM/​CSF) and the direct endothelial cell
proliferating agent vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in the
angiogenesis/​induced control animals. Administration of Tinospora extract could
differentially regulate these cytokine's elevation. The differential regulation
is further evidenced by the increased production of antiangiogenic agents IL/​2
and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease/​1 (TIMP/​1) in the B16F10/​injected,
extract/​treated animals. Moreover, using an in vitro rat aortic ring assay, it
was observed that the extract at nontoxic concentrations inhibited the
production of proangiogenic factors from B16F10 melanoma cells. Direct treatment
of the extract also inhibits the microvessel outgrowth from the aortic ring.
Hence, the observed antiangiogenic activity of the plant T. cordifolia is
related, at least in part, to the regulation of the levels of these cytokines
and growth factors in the blood of the angiogenesis/​induced animal.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15454110 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Med Food. 2004 Fall;7(3):343/​8.

The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal
plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
gc.jagetia@kmc.manipal.edu

The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for
their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium
nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested
demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The
potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris >
Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis >
Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum
sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex
negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia
(methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia
diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V.
negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa
> A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts
evaluated exhibited a dose/​dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris
bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as
compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar
concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be
potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of
pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation
product, peroxynitrite.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies

PMID: 15383230 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

28: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004 Aug 13;4:11.

Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert
neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant system in rat hippocampal slices
subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation.

Rawal AK, Muddeshwar MG, Biswas SK.

SMV Center for Biotechnology, Sindhu Mahavidyalaya, Panchpaoli, Nagpur/​440017,
MS, India. akrawal@rediffmail.com

BACKGROUND: The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic
insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis
and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC) and
Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of
antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various
disorders. However, their mechanism of action was largely unknown. We therefore
selected these herbs for the present study to test their neuroprotective ability
and the associated mechanism in rat hippocampal slices subjected to
oxygen/​glucose deprivation (OGD). METHODS: Hippocampal Slices were subjected to
OGD (oxygen glucose deprivation) and divided into 3 groups: control, OGD and OGD
+ drug treated. Cytosolic Cu/​Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/​Zn SOD), reduced
glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitric oxide (NO) was measured
as nitrite (NO2) in the supernatant and protein assays were performed in the
respective groups at various time intervals. EPR was used to establish the
antioxidant effect of RC, FC and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O2./​),
hydroxyl radicals (. OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical and peroxynitrite anion
(ONOO) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA/​NO and Sin/​1 respectively.
RT/​PCR was performed for the three groups for GCLC, iNOS, Cu/​Zn SOD and GAPDH
gene expression. RESULTS: All the three herbs were effective in elevating the
GSH levels, expression of the gamma/​glutamylcysteine ligase and Cu/​Zn SOD genes.
The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against
reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as studied by electron paramagnetic
resonance spectroscopy. In addition all the three herbs significantly diminished
the expression of iNOS gene after 48 hours which plays a major role in neuronal
injury during hypoxia/ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: RC, FC and TC therefore attenuate
oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD and exert the above effects at
both the cytosolic as well as at gene expression level and may be an effective
therapeutic tool against ischemic brain damage.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 15310392 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Phytochemistry. 2004 Jul;65(14):2051/​5.

Amritosides A, B, C and D: clerodane furano diterpene glucosides from Tinospora
cordifolia.

Maurya R, Manhas LR, Gupta P, Mishra PK, Singh G, Yadav PP.

Medicinal Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil
Palace, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India. mauryarakesh@rediffmail.com

Four new clerodane furano diterpene glucosides (amritosides A, B, C and D) were
isolated as their acetates from Tinospora cordifolia stems. The structures of
these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies.

PMID: 15279971 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Aug;41(8):885/​9.

Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem extract in male rats.

Gupta RS, Sharma A.

Reproduction Physiology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur 302004, India.

Oral administration of 70% methanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem to male rats
at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day for 60 days did not cause body weight loss
but decreased the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral
prostate in a significant manner. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were
reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. The
stem extract brought about an interference with spermatogenesis. The round
spermatids were decreased by 73.12%. However, the population of preleptotene and
pachytene spermatocytes were decreased by 47.60% and 52.85% respectively,
followed by secondary spermatocytes (48.10%). Leydig cell nuclear area and
mature Leydig cell numbers were significantly reduced when compared with
controls. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after Tinospora
extract feeding. Seminiferous tubule diameter, Leydig cell nuclear area as well
as cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells were reduced significantly when
compared to controls. Biochemical parameters i.e. protein, sialic acid, glycogen
contents of testes decreased significantly. Seminal vesicular fructose also
depleted whereas, testicular cholesterol was elevated significantly followed by
a reduction in testosterone levels. These results suggested antifertility
effects of the stem extract of T. cordifolia in male rats.

PMID: 15248490 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

31: J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004 Mar;45(1):61/​8.

Radioprotective potential of an herbal extract of Tinospora cordifolia.

Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, Sagar RK, Agrawala PK, Bala M, Sinha AK, Dogra R.

Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied
Sciences, Delhi, India. radbiol@nds.vsnl.net.in

A preparation of Tinospora cordifolia (RTc) administered i.p. (200 mg/kg b.w.)
to strain "A" male mice 1 h before whole body gamma/​irradiation was evaluated
for its radioprotective efficacy in terms of whole body survival, spleen colony
forming units (CFU), hematological parameters, cell cycle progression, and
micronuclei induction. Preirradiation treatment with RTc rendered 76.3% survival
(30 days), compared to 100% mortality in irradiated control and prevented
radiation induced weight loss. On 10th postirradiation day, the endogenous CFU
counts in spleen were decreased with increasing radiation doses 12.0 (5 Gy),
2.16 (7.5 Gy) and 0.33 (10 Gy) but pre/​irradiation administration of 200 mg/kg
b.w. of RTc increased CFU counts to 31.16, 21.83 and 3.00 respectively.
Pre/​irradiation RTc treatment could restore total lymphocyte counts (TLC) by the
15th day to normal. It also increased the S/​phase cell population that was
reduced following 2 Gy irradiation in a time dependent manner. 2 Gy
irradiation/​induced micronuclei were also decreased by a pre/​irradiation
administration of RTc from 2.9 to 0.52%. Because the radioprotective
manifestation of RTc observed in several systems in experimental animals can be
exploited for human applications.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Evaluation Studies

PMID: 15133291 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

32: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2004 Feb;26(1):145/​62.

Immunomodulatory and antitumor actions of medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia
are mediated through activation of tumor/​associated macrophages.

Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P.

School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Vanarasi, U.P., India.

The present investigations were under taken to study whether the
tumor/​associated macrophages (TAM) of Dalton's lymphoma (DL), a spontaneous
transplantable T cell lymphoma, can be activated by the alcoholic extract of
medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia (ALTC). Intraperitoneal administration of
ALTC in DL/​bearing mice not only augments the basic function of macrophages such
as Phagocytosis as well as their antigen presenting ability and secretion of
IL/​1, TNF and RNI. The results of the present investigation also indicate that
the intraperitoneal administration of ALTC slow down the tumor growth and
increases the life span of tumor bearing host, thus showing its anti tumor
effect through destabilizing the membrane integrity of DL cells directly or
indirectly. This is the first study of it's kind regarding the effect of
alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on the activation of tumor associated
macrophages and showing the antitumor effect on the spontaneous T/​cell lymphoma
(DL), thus may have clinical implications.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15106739 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Acta Pharm. 2004 Mar;54(1):73/​8.

Glycosyl composition of polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia. II. Glycosyl
linkages.

Jahfar M, Azadi P.

Department of Chemistry, University of Calicut, Kerala/​673 635, India.

Polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia was isolated, purified, methylated,
hydrolyzed, reduced and acetylated. The partially methylated alditol acetate
(PMAA) derivative thus obtained was subjected to GC/​MS studies. The following
types of linkages were noticed: terminal/​glucose, 4/​xylose, 4/​glucose,
4,6/​glucose and 2,3,4,6/​glucose.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non/​P.H.S.

PMID: 15050047 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

34: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2/​3):233/​7.

Inhibitory effect of a polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia on experimental
metastasis.

Leyon PV, Kuttan G.

Department of Immunology, Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar PO, Thrissur
Dt, Kerala 680 553, India.

Administration of the polysaccharide fraction from Tinospora cordifolia was
found to be very effective in reducing the metastatic potential of B16F/​10
melanoma cells. There was a 72% inhibition in the metastases formation in the
lungs of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, when the drug was administered simultaneously
with tumour challenge. Biochemical parameters such as lung collagen
hydroxyproline, hexosamines and uronic acids that are markers of neoplastic
development were reduced significantly (P<0.001) in the treated animals compared
with the untreated control animals. The treatment could also reduce serum
gamma/​glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma/​GT) and sialic acid levels as compared to
the control animals.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15013186 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003 Dec;22(12):639/​45.

Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP/​1, a polyherbal phytomedicine.

Tasaduq SA, Singh K, Sethi S, Sharma SC, Bedi KL, Singh J, Jaggi BS, Johri RK.

Biochemistry Lab, Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Canal
Road, Jammu/​Tawi 180 001, India.

HP/​1 a herbal formulation comprising of Phyllanthus niruri and extracts of
Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Tinospora
cordifolia has been evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity. Results show that HP/​1 reversed the
leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT)
and prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) levels in a primary monolayer
culture of rat hepatocytes (in vitro). HP/​1 attenuated the serum toxicity as
manifested in elevated levels of transaminases (glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase (GOT), and GPT) The antioxidative enzymes in liver (catalase and
superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were restored to normal values after the oral
administration of HP/​1. HP/​1 suppressed the formation of the superoxide anion
radical and reduced CCl4 mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO). Silymarin and
antioxidants (ascorbic acid, beta/​carotene and alpha/​tocopherol) were used for
comparison. The present study showed that HP/​1 is a potential hepatoprotective
formulation with an additional attribute of being anti/​peroxidative.

PMID: 14992325 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Acta Pharm. 2003 Mar;53(1):65/​9.

Glycosyl composition of polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia.

Jahfar M.

Department of Chemistry, University of Calicut, Kerala, India 673 635.
jahfarmb@rediffmail.com

Polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia was isolated, purified, hydrolysed,
trimethylsilylated and then subjected to GC/​MC studies. The polysaccharide
composition was estimated as follows: glucose 98.0%, arabinose 0.5%, rhamnose
0.2%, xylose 0.8%, mannose 0.2% and galactose 0.3%.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non/​P.H.S.

PMID: 14769254 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

37: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jan;90(1):49/​55.

Immunoprotection by botanical drugs in cancer chemotherapy.

Diwanay S, Chitre D, Patwardhan B.

Department of Microbiology, Abasaheb Garware College, Pune, India.

Most of the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents available today are
immunosuppressants, cytotoxic, and exert variety of side effects that are
particularly evident in cancer chemotherapy. Botanical based immunomodulators
are often employed as supportive or adjuvant therapy to overcome the undesired
effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and to restore normal health. Total
extract, polar and non/​polar extracts, and their formulations, prepared from
medicinal plants mentioned in Ayurveda, namely, Withania somnifera (Linn Dunal)
(Solanaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Miers) (Menispermaceae), and Asparagus
racemosus (Willd.) (Liliaceae), exhibited various immunopharmacological
activities in cyclophosphamide (CP)/​treated mouse ascitic sarcoma. Treatment of
ascitic sarcoma/​bearing mice with a formulation of total extracts of Withania
somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia (80:20) and alkaloid/​free polar fraction of
Withania somnifera resulted in protection towards CP/​induced myelo/​ and
immunoprotection as evident by significant increase in white cell counts and
hemagglutinating and hemolytic antibody titers. Treatment with these candidate
drugs will be important in development of supportive treatment with cancer
chemotherapy.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14698508 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

38: Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6/​7):474/​82.

Antiatherogenic effect of Caps HT2, a herbal Ayurvedic medicine formulation.

Mary NK, Babu BH, Padikkala J.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

The antiatherogenic effect of a herbal formulation, Caps HT2, was evaluated as
antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase
releasing, anti/​inflammatory and hypolipidaemic activity in rats. The
formulation contained the methanolic extracts of selected parts of plants,
Commiphora mukul, Allium sativum, Plumbago indica, Semecarpus anacardium,
Hemidesmus indicus, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera
and Ocimum sanctum. The formulation, Caps HT2 was found to scavenge superoxide
and hydroxyl radicals; the IC50 required being 55.0 and 610.0 microg/ml
respectively. The lipid peroxidation was found inhibited (50%) by 48.5 microg/ml
of Caps HT2. The intravenous administration of the formulation (5 mg/kg) delayed
the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and enhanced the release of
lipoprotein lipase enzyme significantly (p < 0.001). The formulation also
inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to
commercial heparin. The anti/​inflammatory action of the formulation was
significant (p < 0.001) with acute and chronic inflammations induced by
carrageenan and formalin respectively in rats. The hypolipidaemic effect of Caps
HT2 was significant (p < 0.001) with the administration of the formulation, in
diet/​induced hyperlipidaemia of rats for a period of 30 days. Oral
administration of the formulation, Caps HT2 (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg)
significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The atherogenic index and the
reduction in body weight were significant indicating the effectiveness against
hyperlipidaemia and obesity. All these results revealed the therapeutic
potential of Caps HT2 against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading
to various types of cardiovascular problems.

PMID: 13678230 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Phytother Res. 2003 May;17(5):552/​4.

Alteration of lethal effects of gamma rays in Swiss albino mice by Tinospora
cordifolia.

Pahadiya S, Sharma J.

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur/​302004, India.
SubhashPahadiya@rediffmail.com

Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in Ayurvedic medicines. It is known for its
immunomodulatory, antihepatotoxic, antistress and antioxidant properties. It has
been used in combination with other plant products to prepare a number of
Ayurvedic preparations. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the
radioprotective effect of an aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TC)
against (60)Co gamma radiation. Oral administration of TC 5 mg/kg body wt to
Swiss albino mice 1 h and 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure (8 Gy)
produced a significant protection in terms of survival percentage. After oral
administration of TC 10 mg/kg body wt/day to mice 7 days prior to whole body
irradiation (8 Gy) there was no mortality until day 13 and 50% of the animals
survived until day 30. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without TC pretreatment
exhibited signs of radiation sickness such as anorexia, lethargy, ruffled hair,
diarrhoea and these animals died within 14 days of irradiation. The results from
the present study suggest that Tinospora cordifolia has a radioprotective effect
in Swiss albino mice, thereby enhancing the survival of mice against a sublethal
dose of gamma radiation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12748997 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):410/​3.

Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora
cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats.

Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar /​ 608 002,
Tamil Nadu, India.

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycaemic and
hypolipidaemic effects of an alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots, an
indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India. Oral administration of the
extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCREt) roots for 6 weeks resulted in a
significant reduction in blood and urine glucose and in lipids in serum and
tissues in alloxan diabetic rats. The extract also prevented a decrease in body
weight. Thus our study clearly shows that an alcohol TCREt has a hypoglycaemic
and hypolipidaemic action. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12722152 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):306/​10.

Protective effect of a polyherbal formulation (Immu/​21) against
cyclophosphamide/​induced mutagenicity in mice.

Jena GB, Nemmani KV, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical
Education and Research, Sector/​67, S A S Nagar, Punjab 160 062, India.

The object was to evaluate the effects of a polyherbal formulation, Immu/​21,
against cyclophosphamide (CP)/​induced chromosomal aberrations (CA) and
micronuclei (MN) in mice. CP alone (40 mg/kg, i.p.) produced classical as well
as non/​classical chromosomal aberrations in mice, and the incidence of CA was
significantly more in the CP treated group when compared with that of the
control group. Immu/​21, which contains extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania
somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia, was given at 100 mg/kg,
daily, over 7 days, and 30 mg/kg daily over 14 days and inhibited both
CP/​induced classical and non/​classical chromosomal aberrations ( approximately
40%/​60% of control). A significant increase in MN was also observed in bone
marrow erythrocytes of mice treated with CP, and pretreatment with Immu/​21 also
significantly reduced these. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by estimating the ratio
of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). The
present results indicate that chronic treatment with Immu/​21 prevented
CP/​induced genotoxicity in mice. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12722129 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar;40(3):282/​7.

Cell proliferation and natural killer cell activity by polyherbal formulation,
Immu/​21 in mice.

Nemmani KV, Jena GB, Dey CS, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical
Education and Research, Sector/​67, S. A. S. Nagar 160 062, India.

Immunomodulatory activity of an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, Immu/​21
containing extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis
and Tinospora cordifolia was studied on proliferative response of splenic
leukocytes to T cell mitogens, concanavalin (Con)/​A and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)
and B cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro by [3H]/​thymidine uptake
assay in mice. The cytotoxic activity of Immu/​21 was tested by measuring the
splenic leukocyte natural killer (NK) cell activity against K 562 cells.
Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with Immu/​21 (30 mg/kg) once a day for 14 and
21 days did not cause change in body weight and spleen weight, where as
splenocytes/spleen count was increased. Treatment of Immu/​21 (30 mg/kg, i.p.)
for 14 days and 1 mg/kg for 21 days significantly increased LPS induced
leukocyte proliferation. NK cell activity was significantly increased when mice
were pretreated with Immu/​21 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day for 7 days. The
results indicate that pretreatment with Immu/​21 selectively increased the
proliferation of splenic leukocyte to B cell mitogen, LPS and cytotoxic activity
against K 562 cells in mice.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12635697 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar;40(3):273/​6.

Amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats
following oral administration of plant (Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens and
Tinospora cordifolia) extracts.

Grover JK, Rathi SS, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Extract of M. charantia (200 mg/kg), E. jambolana (200 mg/kg), M. pruriens (200
mg/kg) and T. cordifolia (400 mg/kg) was administered for 50 days in STZ induced
diabetic mice, the plasma glucose concentration was reduced by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45
and 9.07% respectively. Tail flick latency (TFL) and gastric transit percentage
were significantly higher in diabetic controls versus normal controls. M.
charantia and E. jambolana modified it favorably while M. pruriens and T.
cordifolia did not exert any favorable change.

PMID: 12635695 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

44: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Jun;40(6):727/​34.

Free radical scavenging and metal chelation by Tinospora cordifolia, a possible
role in radioprotection.

Goel HC, Prem Kumar I, Rana SV.

Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied
sciences, Brig SK Majumdar Marg, Delhi 110 054. radbiol@nda.vsnl.net.in

Aqueous extract of T. cordifolia inhibited Fenton (FeSO4) reaction and radiation
mediated 2/​deoxyribose degradation in a dose dependent fashion with an IC50
value of 700 microg/ml for both Fenton and radiation mediated 2/​DR degradation.
Similarly, it showed a moderate but dose dependent inhibition of chemically
generated superoxide anion at 500 microg/ml concentration and above with an IC50
value of 2000 microg/ml. Aqueous extract inhibited the formation of
Fe2+/​bipiridyl complex and formation of comet tail by chelating Fe2+ ions in a
dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 150 microg/ml for Fe2+/​bipirydyl
formation and maximally 200 microg/ml for comet tail formation, respectively.
The extract inhibited ferrous sulphate mediated lipid peroxidation in a
dose/​dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1300 microg/ml and maximally (70%)
at 2000 microg/ml. The results reveal that the direct and indirect antioxidant
actions of T. cordifolia probably act in corroboration to manifest the overall
radioprotective effects.

PMID: 12587720 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

45: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan;84(1):105/​8.

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants
in alloxan diabetic rats.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG.

Satsang Herbal Research and Analytical Laboratories, PO Satsang/​814 116 Deoghar,
India. pratip_neogy@hotmail.com

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have
been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic,
Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different
herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose
lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino
rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using
herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once, twice or thrice daily, as needed.
While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal
samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in
decreasing order in the following 24 samples/​Coccinia indica, Tragia
involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum/​graecum, Moringa
oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita, Momordica
charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna
integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca,
Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle
marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum.
Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental
herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in
crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental
results. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

PMID: 12499084 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

46: Phytother Res. 2002 Dec;16(8):774/​7.

Prevention of experimental diabetic cataract by Indian Ayurvedic plant extracts.

Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vikrant V, Biswas NR.

Department of Pharmacology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center of Ophthalmic Sciences,
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi /​ 110029,
India.

The efficacy of Momordica charantia (MC), Eugenia jambolana (EJ), Tinospora
cordifolia (TC) and Mucuna pruriens (MP) was assessed in the prevention of
murine alloxan dibetic cataract. Alloxan (120 mg/kg) was used as the
diabetogenic agent. While controls and diabetic controls did not receive any
plant extract, treated rats received lyophilized aqueous extract of MC and EJ
(200 mg/kg p.o.), alcohol extract of TC (400 mg/kg) and MP (200 mg/kg p.o.)
every day until 4 months. Serum glucose concentration was assessed and cataracts
examined with both the naked eye and through a slit lamp. Of the eight animals
in the diabetic control group, four developed cortical cataract (stage IV) by
day 90 while the remaining four developed it by day 100. The incidence rate of
cataract in MC, EJ, TC and MP treated groups at 120 days was only 0, 0, 1 and 2.
Oral feeding of MC, EJ, TC and MP extracts for 1 month produced a fall of
64.33%, 55.62%, 38.01% and 40.17%, respectively, in the serum glucose levels in
comparison with the 48 h level. After 2 months of treatment, the respective
values were 66.96%, 59.85%, 40.41% and 45.63%. MC and EJ prevented the
development of cataract while the protective effect was less with TC and MP
along with a significant reduction of plasma glucose levels (p < 0.001).
Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12458487 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

47: J Toxicol Sci. 2002 Aug;27(3):139/​46.

Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4
intoxicated mature albino rats.

Bishayi B, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M.

Department of Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, University of Calcutta, 92,
A.P.C. Road, Calcutta/​700 009, India.

Effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract on modulation of hepatoprotective and
immunostimulatory functions in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated mature
rats is reported here. Administration of CCl4 (0.7 ml/kg body weight for 7 days)
produces damage in the liver as evident by estimation of enzymes such as serum
glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transminase
(SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as serum bilirubin level. CCl4
administration also causes immunosuppressive effects as indicated by phagocytic
capacity, chemotactic migration and cell adhesiveness of rat peritoneal
macrophages. However, treatment with T. cordifolia extract (100 mg/kg body
weight for 15 days) in CCl4 intoxicated rats was found to protect the liver, as
indicated by enzyme level in serum. A significant reduction in serum levels of
SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin were observed following T. cordifolia treatment
during CCl4 intoxication. Treatment with T. cordifolia extract also deleted the
immunosuppressive effect of CCl4, since a significant increment in the
functional capacities of rat peritoneal macrophages (PM phi) was observed
following T. cordifolia treatment. The results of our experiment suggest that
treatment by T. cordifolia extract may be the critical remedy for the adverse
effect of CCl4 in liver function as well as immune functions.

PMID: 12238138 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

48: Redox Rep. 2002;7(3):137/​43.

Antioxidant properties of a Tinospora cordifolia polysaccharide against
iron/​mediated lipid damage and gamma/​ray induced protein damage.

Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S.

Bio/​Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India.

The antioxidant activity of an arabinogalactan polysaccharide (TSP) isolated
from Tinospora cordifolia, an Indian medicinal plant, was studied. The
polysaccharide showed good protection against iron/​mediated lipid peroxidation
of rat brain homogenate as revealed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) assays. TSP also provided
significant protection to protein against gamma/​ray induced damage. The
protective action can possibly be explained by its very high reactivity towards
DPPH, superoxide radicals and the most damaging of radicals, the hydroxyl
radical.

PMID: 12189043 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

49: Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Dec;39(12):1308/​10.

An experimental study of some indigenous drugs with special reference to
hydraulic permeability.

Upadhyay L, Mehrotra A, Srivastava AK, Rai NP, Tripathi K.

Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi, India.

The effect of commonly used indigenous drugs for hepatic disorders i.e.
Tinospora cordifolia, (Guduchi/Amrita), Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha),
Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutki), Phyllantnus niruri (Bhoomyamalaki) and Berberis
aristata (Daruharidra) was tested on the hydraulic permeability of water in the
presence of bile salt through a transport cell model. The data on hydraulic
permeability were calculated as t (time). JV = Lp x AP, where Lp = hydraulic
conductivity and AP is the pressure difference. It was observed that the value
of controlled hydraulic permeability (0.49 x 10(/​8) M3 S(/​1) N(/​1)) decreased in
the presence of indigenous drugs and bile salt. The results suggest that these
drugs might have the cell membrane stabilizing property which may lead to
prevention of the toxic effect of bile salts in various hepatic disorders.

PMID: 12018531 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

50: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1):81/​100.

Medicinal plants of India with anti/​diabetic potential.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi/​110049, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda
and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various
human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several
thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted
in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used
traditionally for diabetes have shown anti/​diabetic property. The present paper
reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude
extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of
medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti/​diabetic activity. Indian
plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to
diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera,
Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis,
Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium,
Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum
graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna
pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya
koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of
hypoglycemic and anti/​hyperglycemic activity.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 12020931 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

51: J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Aug;76(3):233/​8.

Traditional Indian anti/​diabetic plants attenuate progression of renal damage in
streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Dawar R.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, 110049, New Delhi, India

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of daily oral feeding
Momordica charantia (MC) (200 mg/kg), Eugenia jambolana (EJ) (200 mg/kg), Mucuna
pruriens (MP) (200 mg/kg) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extracts for 40 days on
blood glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin
(STZ)/​diabetic rats. Plasma glucose levels, body weight, urine volume and
urinary albumin levels were monitored on every 10th day over a 40/​day period
while plasma creatinine levels were assessed at the beginning and end of
experiment. Renal hypertrophy was assessed as the ratio between the kidney
weight and total body weight. Plasma glucose concentrations in STZ/​diabetic mice
were reduced by the administration of extracts of MC, EJ, TC and MP by 24.4,
20.84, 7.45 and 9.07%, respectively (P<0.005 for MC, EJ, MP and P<0.05 for TC).
Urine volume was significantly higher (P<0.005) in diabetic controls and MC, EJ,
MP and TC treatment prevented polyuria (P<0.001, 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.001,
respectively). After 10 days of STZ administration urinary albumin levels (UAE)
were over 6 fold higher in diabetic controls as compared to normal controls.
Treatment with MC, EJ, MP and TC significantly prevented the rise in UAE levels
from day 0 to 40 in comparison to diabetic controls (P<0.0001, 0.0001, 0.05,
0.05, respectively). Renal hypertrophy was significantly higher in diabetic
controls as compared to non/​diabetic controls. MC and EJ partially but
significantly (P<0.05) prevented renal hypertrophy as compared to diabetic
controls. TC and MP failed to modify renal hypertrophy. Results indicate that
these plant drugs should be studied further.

PMID: 11448544 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

52: Phytother Res. 2001 May;15(3):213/​8.

Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic
rats.

Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar /​ 608 002,
Tamil Nadu, India.

Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the
treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 2.5 g and 5.0 g/kg body
weight of the aqueous extract of the roots for 6 weeks resulted in a significant
reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase in
reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in
alloxan diabetic rats. The effect of Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCREt)
was most prominently seen in the case of rats given 5.0 g/kg body weight. The
effect of TCREt was more effective than glibenclamide. Thus our study shows that
TCREt exhibits antioxidant action in alloxan diabetes. Copyright 2001 John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 11351355 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

53: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Dec;73(3):461/​70.

Anti/​hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in
experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in
carbohydrate metabolism.

Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

In India, the decoction of kernels of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) and extracts of
Tinospora cordifolia (TC) are used as a household remedy for diabetes. These
also form constituents of many herbal formulations for diabetes that are
marketed in this country. The anti/​hyperglycemic effect of aqueous and alcoholic
extracts as well as lyophilized powder of these two plants was evaluated in
diabetic animals using different doses of diabetogenic agents for varying
duration (21/​120 days) so as to assess their effect in mild (plasma sugar>180
mg/dl, duration 21 days), moderate (plasma sugar>280 mg/dl, duration 120 days)
and severe (plasma sugar>400 mg/dl, duration 60 days) diabetes mellitus. In the
pilot study (mild diabetes), maximum reduction of 73.51 and 70.37% in glucose
levels was seen in animals receiving 200 mg/kg per day of lyophilized powder of
EJ and 400 mg/kg per day of aqueous extract of TC after 3 and 15 weeks of
treatment, respectively. There percent reduction in glucose decreased
significantly in the moderate and severe diabetes; 55.62 and 17.72% for EJ and
48.81 and 0% for TC at the similar time intervals. The alteration in hepatic and
skeletal muscle glycogen content and hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase,
glucose/​6/​phosphate and phosphofructokinase levels in diabetic mice were
partially restored by EJ but not by TC. The mechanism of action of EJ and TC is
discussed.

PMID: 11091000 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

54: Fitoterapia. 2000 Jun;71(3):254/​7.

Comparative studies of the immunomodulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia and
Tinospora sinensis.

Manjrekar PN, Jolly CI, Narayanan S.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Prin. K.M. Kundnani College of
Pharmacy, Worli, 400 018, Mumbai, India.

The water and ethanol extracts of stems of Tinospora cordifolia and T. sinensis
inhibit immunosuppression produced by cyclophosphamide. Ethanol extracts of
stems of both the plants inhibit cyclophosphamide/​induced anemia. The water
extract of T. sinensis is found to be more potent than the other extracts.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 10844163 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

55: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Apr;70(1):9/​15.

Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in
alloxan/​induced diabetic rats.

Stanely P, Prince M, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, India.

Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for treating
diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of an aqueous T. cordifolia root extract
(TCREt) to alloxan diabetic rats caused a significant reduction in blood glucose
and brain lipids. The extract caused an increase in body weight, total
haemoglobin and hepatic hexokinase. The root extract also lowers hepatic
glucose/​6/​phosphatase and serum acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and
lactate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats. Thus TCREt has hypoglycaemic and
hypolipidaemic effect.

PMID: 10720784 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Phytochemistry. 1999 Nov;52(6):1089/​93.

An immunologically active arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia.

Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla P, Ramakrishnan R,
Sainis K.

Bio/​Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India.

An arabinogalactan of mean M(r) 2.2 x 10(6) has been isolated from the dried
stems of Tinospora cordifolia and examined by methylation analysis, partial
hydrolysis and carboxyl reduction. Purified polysaccharide showed polyclonal
mitogenic activity against B/​cells, their proliferation did not require
macrophages.

PMID: 10643671 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275/​91.

Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Ayurveda Research Centre, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seth GS
Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India. kemarc@bom3.vsnl.net.in

Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax
ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum
sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential.
However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the
clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens
which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further
discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied
for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of
selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis,
Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered
orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose,
following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and
chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these
stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective
parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced
alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a
normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested.
All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while
Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced
intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability
to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal
macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse
serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the
direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant
drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies
on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced
immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress
induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked.
Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical
damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to
depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent
data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic
adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 10404532 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

58: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Jun;65(3):277/​81.

Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia roots in experimental diabetes.

Prince PS, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India.

We made an attempt to study the antioxidant properties of Tinospora cordifolia
roots, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India in alloxan
diabetic rats. Oral administration of an aqueous T. cordifolia root extract
(TCREt) (2.5 and 5.0 g/kg) for 6 weeks resulted in a decrease in the levels of
plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, ceruloplasmin and
alpha/​tocopherol in alloxan diabetic rats. The root extract also causes an
increase in the levels of glutathione and vitamin C in alloxan diabetes. The
root extract at a dose of 5.0 g/kg showed the highest effect. The effect of
TCREt was more effective than glibenclamide. Insulin restored all the parameters
to near normal levels.

PMID: 10404427 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

59: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Jan;64(1):53/​7.

Hypolipidaemic action of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan diabetic rats.

Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP, Gunasekaran G.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu,
India.

We undertook the present study to evaluate the hypolipidaemic effect of an
aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots, an indigenous plant used in
Ayurvedic medicine in India. Administration of the extract of T. cordifolia
roots (2.5 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) for 6 weeks resulted in a significant
reduction in serum and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids in
alloxan diabetic rats. The root extract at a dose of 5.0 g/kg body weight showed
highest hypolipidaemic effect. The effect of T. cordifolia roots at 2.5 and 5.0
g/kg body weight was better than glibenclamide. Insulin restored all the
parameters to near normal values.

PMID: 10075122 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Cancer Lett. 1998 May 15;127(1/​2):71/​82.

Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in
cultured HeLa cells.

Jagetia GC, Nayak V, Vidyasagar MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml of guduchi extracts
(methanol, aqueous and methylene chloride) resulted in a dose/​dependent but
significant increase in cell killing, when compared to non/​drug/​treated
controls. The effects of methanol and aqueous extracts were almost identical.
However, methylene chloride extract enhanced the cell killing effect by 2.8/​ and
6.8/​fold when compared either to methanol or aqueous extract at 50 and 100
microg/ml, respectively. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a
concentration/​dependent manner in guduchi/​treated groups and this increase in
the frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher than the non/​drug/​treated
control cultures and also with respect to 5 microg/ml guduchi extract/​treated
cultures, at the rest of the concentrations evaluated. Furthermore, the
micronuclei formation was higher in the methylene chloride extract/​treated group
than in the other two groups. The dose response relationship for all three
extracts evaluated was linear quadratic. The effect of guduchi extracts was
comparable or better than doxorubicin treatment. The micronuclei induction was
correlated with the surviving fraction of cells and the correlation between cell
survival and micronuclei induction was found to be linear quadratic. Our results
demonstrate that guduchi killed the cells very effectively in vitro and deserves
attention as an antineoplastic agent.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9619860 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

61: J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1997 Dec;16(4):407/​11.

Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia and its usefulness in the
amelioration of cyclophosphamide induced toxicity.

Mathew S, Kuttan G.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Extract of Tinospora cordifolia has been shown to inhibit the lipid peroxidation
and superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Concentration needed for 50%
inhibition was 6 mg and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. The extract was also found to
reduce the toxic side effects of cyclophosphamide administration (25 mg/kg b.wt,
10 days) in mice hematological system by the free radical formation as seen from
total white blood cell count, bone marrow cellularity and alpha/​esterase
positive cells. Moreover, administration of the extract partially reduced the
elevated lipid peroxides in serum and liver as well as alkaline phosphatase and
glutamine pyruvate transaminase. This indicates the use of Tinospora extract in
reducing the chemotoxicity induced by free radical forming chemicals.

PMID: 9505214 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

62: J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Oct;58(2):89/​95.

Immunopotentiating compounds from Tinospora cordifolia.

Kapil A, Sharma S.

Pharmacology Division, Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu Tawi, India.

The active principles of Tinospora cordifolia a traditional Indian plant were
found to possess anticomplementary and immunomodulatory activities. Syringin
(TC/​4) and cordiol (TC/​7) inhibited the in vitro immunohaemolysis of
antibody/​coated sheep erythrocytes by guinea pig serum. The reduced
immunohaemolysis was found to be due to inhibition of the C3/​convertase of the
classical complement pathway. However, higher concentrations showed constant
inhibitory effects. The compounds also gave rise to significant increases in IgG
antibodies in serum. Humoral and cell/​mediated immunity were also
dose/​dependently enhanced. Macrophage activation was reported for cordioside
(TC/​2), cordiofolioside A (TC/​5) and cordiol (TC/​7) and this activation was more
pronounced with increasing incubation times.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9406896 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

63: J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Sep;58(1):15/​20.

Effect of some Indian herbs on macrophage functions in ochratoxin A treated
mice.

Dhuley JN.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Research Centre, Hindustan
Antibiotics Limited, Pimpri, India.

The effect of Indian herbs namely, Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia,
Withania somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa on the functions of macrophages
obtained from mice treated with the carcinogen ochratoxin A (OTA) was
investigated. The chemotactic activity of murine macrophages was significantly
decreased by 17 weeks of treatment with OTA compared with controls. Production
of interleukin/​1 (IL/​1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was also markedly
reduced. Treatment with Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania
somnifera and Picrorhiza kurrooa significantly inhibited OTA/​induced suppression
of chemotactic activity and production of IL/​1 and TNF/​alpha by macropahges.
Moreover, we found that Withania somnifera treated macrophage chemotaxis and
that Asparagus racemosus induced excess production of TNF/​alpha when compared
with controls.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 9324000 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Mar;35(3):297/​9.

Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet
superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats.

Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Chakrabarti A.

Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and
hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells
was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia
and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an
Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora
cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had
little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in
euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once
daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose/​ related decrease
in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD
activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti/​hyperglycaemic
effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity,
the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet
SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals
in islet beta/​cells.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9332177 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

65: J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Nov;54(2/​3):119/​24.

Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and
in immunomodulation studies.

Sohni YR, Bhatt RM.

Department of Biology, Alabama A&M University, Normal 35762, USA.

The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental
amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The
formulation comprises the following five plants/​Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora
cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The
formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic
amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to
4.2 for sham/​treated controls. In immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was
enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre. The T/​cell counts remained
unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell/​mediated immune
response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI)
tests.

PMID: 8953425 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Planta Med. 1995 Feb;61(1):98/​9.

Isolation of jatrorrhizine from Tinospora cordifolia roots.

Sarma DN, Khosa RL, Sahai M.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7701011 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

67: HPB Surg. 1995;9(1):5/​11.

Can we do away with PTBD?

Bapat RD, Rege NN, Koti RS, Desai NK, Dahanukar SA.

Department of Gastroenterology Surgical Services, Seth G. S. Medical College,
Bombay, India.

Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage (PTBD) is performed in surgical
jaundice to decompress the biliary tree and improve hepatic functions. However,
the risk of sepsis is high in these patients due to immunosuppression and
surgical outcome remains poor. This raises a question/​/​can we do away with PTBD?
To answer this query a study was carried out in 4 groups of patients bearing in
mind the high incidence of sepsis and our earlier studies, which have
demonstrated immunotherapeutic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (TC): (A) those
undergoing surgery without PTBD (n = 14), (B) those undergoing surgery after
PTBD (n = 13). The mortality was 57.14% in Group A as compared to 61.54% in
Group B. Serial estimations of bilirubin levels carried out during the course of
drainage (3 Wks) revealed a gradual and significant decrease from 12.52 +//​ 8.3
mg% to 5.85 +//​ 3.0 mg%. Antipyrine half/​life did not change significantly
(18.35 +//​ 4.2 hrs compared to basal values 21.96 +//​ 3.78 hrs). The phagocytic
and intracellular killing (ICK) capacities of PMN remained suppressed (Basal:
22.13 +//​ 3.68% phago. and 19.1 +//​ 4.49% ICK; Post drainage: 20 +//​ 8.48% Phago
and 11.15 +//​ 3.05% ICK). Thus PTBD did not improve the metabolic capacity of
the liver and mortality was higher due to sepsis. Group (C) patients received TC
during PTBD (n = 16) and Group (D) patients received TC without PTBD (n = 14). A
significant improvement in PMN functions occurred by 3 weeks in both groups
(30.29 +//​ 4.68% phago, 30 +//​ 4.84% ICK in Group C and 30.4 +//​ 2.99% phago,
27.15 +//​ 6.19% ICK in Group D). The mortality in Groups C and D was 25% and
14.2% respectively during the preoperative period. There was no mortality after
surgery. It appears from this study that host defenses as reflected by PMN
functions play an important role in influencing prognosis. Further decompression
of the biliary tree by PTBD seems unwarranted.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 8857447 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

68: J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Jan;45(1):43/​52.

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against
Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

Sohni YR, Kaimal P, Bhatt RM.

Microbiology Department, CHM College, University of Bombay, India.

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica
was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has
been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs,
namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia
chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted
in ethanol together and individually. In vitro amoebicidal activity was studied
to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all the
constituent extracts as well as the whole formulation. The formulation had a MIC
of 1000 micrograms/ml as compared with 10 micrograms/ml for metronidazole. In
experimental caecal amoebiasis in rats the formulation had a curative rate of
89% with the average degree of infection (ADI) reduced to 0.4 in a group dosed
with 500 mg/kg per day as compared with ADI of 3.8 for the sham/​treated control
group of rats. Metronidazole had a cure rate of 89% (ADI = 0.4) at a dose of 100
mg/kg per day and cured the infection completely (ADI = 0) when the dosage was
doubled to 200 mg/kg per day. There were varying degrees of inhibition of the
following enzyme activities of crude extracts of axenically cultured amoebae:
DNase, RNase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alpha/​amylase
and protease.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 7739226 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

69: J Postgrad Med. 1994 Oct/​Dec;40(4):202/​3.

Tinospora cordifolia induces colony stimulating activity in serum.

Thatte UM, Rao SG, Dahanukar SA.

Dept of Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Bombay, Maharashtra.

Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) is an Indian medicinal plant with proven
immunomodulatory activity. This study was performed to elucidate its possible
mechanism of action. We measured CFU/​GM Cotony forming units of the
granulocyte/​macrophage series in serum of mice treated with Tc. We found that 10
days treatment with Tc (100 mg/ kg/d) induced a significant (p < 0.01) increase
in the number of CFU/​GM (255 +//​ 49.32 vs 38.51 +//​ 9.98) This suggests that
activation of macrophages by Tc leads to increase in GM/​CSF which leads to
leucocytosis and improved neutrophil function.

PMID: 9136239 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Phytochemistry. 1994 Oct;37(3):781/​6.

Cordifolisides A, B, C: norditerpene furan glycosides from Tinospora cordifolia.

Gangan VD, Pradhan P, Sipahimalani AT, Banerji A.

Bio/​Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, India.

Several glycosides were isolated, as polyacetates, from the n/​BuOH fraction of
the Tinospora cordifolia stems. The structures of three new norditerpene furan
glycosides cordifoliside A, B and C have been established by 1D and 2D NMR
spectroscopy.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7765690 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

71: J Postgrad Med. 1994 Apr/​Jun;40(2):65/​7.

Modulation of Kupffer cell activity by Tinospora cordifolia in liver damage.

Nagarkatti DS, Rege NN, Desai NK, Dahanukar SA.

Dept of Pharmocology, Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Bombay.

Kupffer cells are major determinants of outcome of liver injury. Their activity
was therefore studied in a model of chronic liver disease. The effect of
Tinospora cordifolia, an indigenous agent with proven hepatoprotective activity,
was evaluated on Kupffer cell function, using carbon clearance test as a
parameter. Rats were divided into two major groups. In Gp I which served as
normal control t1/2 of carbon was 9.48 +//​ 4.14 min. GpII received horse/​serum
in a dose of 0.5 ml/100 gm b.w. i.p. for a period of 12 weeks and was divided
into three sub/​groups. In Gp IIA at the end of 12 weeks half/​life of carbon was
found to be significantly increased to 19.86 +//​ 7.95 min (p < 0.01). Indicating
suppressed Kupffer cell function in chronic liver damage. In Gp IIB treated with
vehicle for 4 more weeks there was significant prolongation of half/​life to
38.32 +//​ 10.61 min (p < 0.01), indicating perpetuation of damage in absence of
damaging agent. Whereas in Gp IIc, treated with Tinospora cordifolia t 1/2 was
decreased to 14.24 7.74 min (p < .01), as compared to vehicle control indicating
a significant improvement in Kupffer cell function and a trend towards
normalization.

PMID: 8737554 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan;12(1):5/​8.

Immunotherapy with Tinospora cordifolia: a new lead in the management of
obstructive jaundice.

Rege N, Bapat RD, Koti R, Desai NK, Dahanukar S.

Department of Pharmacology, Seth G S Medical College, Bombay.

OBJECTIVE: Immunosuppression associated with deranged hepatic function and
sepsis results in poor surgical outcome in extrahepatic obstructive jaundice.
The effect of an ayurvedic agent, Tinospora cordifolia (TC), which has been
shown to have hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties in experimental
studies, on surgical outcome in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice was
evaluated. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly divided into two groups,
matched with respect to clinical features, impairment of hepatic function (as
judged by liver function tests including antipyrine elimination) and
immunosuppression (phagocytic and killing capacities of neutrophils). Group I
received conventional management, ie vitamin K, antibiotics and biliary
drainage; Group II received Tinospora cordifolia (16 mg/kg/day orally) in
addition, during the period of biliary drainage. RESULTS: Hepatic function
remained comparable in the two groups after drainage. However, the phagocytic
and killing capacities of neutrophils normalized only in patients receiving
Tinospora cordifolia (28.2 +//​ 5.5% and 29.47 +//​ 6.5% respectively).
Post/​drainage bactobilia was observed in 8 patients in Group I and 7 in Group
II, but clinical evidence of septicemia was observed in 50% of patients in Group
I as against none in Group II (p < 0.05). Post/​operative survival in Groups I
and II was 40% and 92.4% respectively (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Tinospora
cordifolia appears to improve surgical outcome by strengthening host defenses.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8330924 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

73: J Postgrad Med. 1993 Jan/​Mar;39(1):22/​5.

Quantitation of microbicidal activity of mononuclear phagocytes: an in vitro
technique.

Rege NN, Dahanukar SA.

Dept of Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Bombay,
Maharashtra.

An in vitro assay technique was set up to determine the phagocytic and
microbicidal activity of a monocyte/​macrophage cell line using Candida species
as test organisms. The norms were determined for the activity of peritoneal
macrophages of rats (24.69 +//​ 2.6% phagocytosis and 35.4 +//​ 5.22% ICK) and
human (27.89 +//​ 3.63% phagocytosis and 50.91 +//​ 6.3% ICK). The assay technique
was used to test the degree of activation of macrophages induced by
metronidazole, Tinospora cordifolia and Asparaqus racemousus and to compare
their effects with a standard immunomodulator muramyl/​dipeptide. All the three
test agents increased the phagocytic and killing capacity of macrophages in a
dose dependent manner upto a certain dose, beyond which either these activities
were found to have plateaued or decreased. The optimal doses for MDP,
Metronidazole, Asparagus racemosus and Tinospora cordifolia were found to be 100
micrograms, 300 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg respectively. Patients with
cirrhosis were screened for defects in monocyte function. The depressed monocyte
function (20.58 +//​ 5% phago and 41.24 +//​ 12.19% ICK; P < 0.05) was observed
indicating a compromised host defense. The utility of this candidicidal assay in
experimental and clinical studies is discussed.

PMID: 8295140 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

74: Planta Med. 1992 Apr;58(2):131/​6.

Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal
and alloxan/​diabetic rabbits.

Wadood N, Wadood A, Shah SA.

Pharmacology Division, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan.

The aqueous, alcoholic, and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Tinospora
cordifolia were administered in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight
to normal and alloxan/​diabetic rabbits. The blood glucose and total lipid levels
were estimated before and 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after administration of the
extract. The extract exerted a significant (P less than 0.5) hypoglycaemic
effect in normal as well as in alloxan/​treated rabbits. The extracts, however,
had no significant (P greater than 0.05) effect on total lipid levels in normal
as well as in alloxan/​treated diabetic rabbits. The doses used did not show
acute toxicity or result in behavioural changes. From this study, it may be
concluded that extracts of the leaves of Tinospora cordifolia have an
insulin/​like action and can significantly reduce the blood glucose but not the
total lipid levels in normal rabbits and in alloxan/​induced diabetic rabbits.

PMID: 1529024 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

75: J Postgrad Med. 1992 Apr/​Jun;38(2):102.

Comment on:
J Postgrad Med. 1992 Jan/​Mar;38(1):13/​5.

Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia by
tinospora cordifolia.

Mathur SK.

Publication Types:
Comment
Letter

PMID: 1294124 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

76: J Postgrad Med. 1992 Jan/​Mar;38(1):13/​5.

Comment in:
J Postgrad Med. 1992 Apr/​Jun;38(2):102.

Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia by
Tinospora cordifolia.

Thatte UM, Kulkarni MR, Dahanukar SA.

Department of Pharmacology, Seth G.S. Medical College, Parel, Bombay.

We present here the protective effects of an Indian medicinal plant Tinospora
cordifolia as compared to gentamicin in E. Coli induced peritonitis.
Pretreatment with tinospora cordifolia or gentamicin reduced mortality in mice
injected with 1 x 10(8) E. coli intraperitoneally from 100% in controls to 17.8%
and 11.1% respectively. This was associated with significantly improved
bacterial clearance as well as improved phagocytic and intracellular
bactericidal capacities of neutrophils in the Tinospora cordifolia treated
group. In the gentamicin treated mice although bacterial clearance was rapid,
polymorph phagocytosis was depressed. Tinospora cordifolia did not possess in
vitro bactericidal activity. The results demonstrate that a "prohost approach"
may be beneficial in the therapy of peritonitis.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 1512717 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Indian J Med Res. 1989 Dec;90:478/​83.

Modulation of immunosuppression in obstructive jaundice by Tinospora cordifolia.

Rege NN, Nazareth HM, Bapat RD, Dahanukar SA.

A clinical study was undertaken to determine the immune status of patients with
obstructive jaundice. Screening of 16 patients for phagocytic and microbicidal
activity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) revealed a significant depression
(21.2 +//​ 3.7% phagocytosis and 20.85 +//​ 4.5% intracellular killing) of these
functions, as compared to normal values (30.37 +//​ 5.1% and 26.41 +//​ 4.3%
respectively). An animal model of cholestasis was also established, using rats,
in which a significant depression of activity of PMN and peritoneal macrophages
was observed. These cellular abnormalities were found to precede and predispose
to infection. The rats also showed an increased susceptibility to Escherichia
coli infection (mortality rate 77.78%). A defect was detected in their serum
responsible for depressing the function of phagocytic cells. An attempt was made
to improve this immunosuppression by treating the rats with water extract of T.
cordifolia 100 mg/kg for 7 days, following development of cholestasis. The
extract improved the cellular immune functions. Mortality rate following Esch.
coli infection was significantly reduced to 16.67 per cent. This study showed
that cholestasis results in immunosuppression and therefore indicates the need
for an immunomodulator in management of obstructive jaundice. The plant T.
cordifolia seems to meet this need by consolidating host defence mechanism.

PMID: 2697692 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

78: Acta Crystallogr C. 1989 Feb 15;45 ( Pt 2):300/​3.

Structure of columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone from Tinospora cordifolia
Miers.

Swaminathan K, Sinha UC, Ramakumar S, Bhatt RK, Sabata BK.

Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Bombay.

(1S,4R,5R,8S,10R,12S)/​4/​Hydroxy/​15,16/​epoxycleroda/​2,12(16),14/​ trieno/​17,12:
18,1/​biscarbolactone, C20H22O6, Mr = 358.2, m.p. = 453/​454 K, orthorhombic,
P2(1)2(1)2(1), a = 7.3869 (6), b = 11.986 (1), c = 19.896 (2) A, V = 1761.65 A3,
Z = 4, Dx = 1.351, Dm(by flotation) = 1.349 g cm/​3, lambda(Cu K alpha) = 1.5418
A, mu = 8.36 cm/​1, F(000) = 760, T = 295 K, R = 0.0432 for 1662 observed
reflections. Two terpene rings, two delta/​lactones, two methyl groups, a
tertiary hydroxyl group and a beta/​substituted furan ring are present in the
structure. The H atoms at C(12) and C(8) are alpha/​ and beta/​oriented. The
terpene ring A is locked into a boat conformation by the C(1)/​C(4) lactone
bridge. The furan ring is attached equatorially at atom C(12). The hydroxyl
group is involved in intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

PMID: 2610972 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

79: Acta Crystallogr C. 1989 Jan 15;45 ( Pt 1):134/​6.

Structure of tinosporide, a diterpenoid furanolactone from Tinospora cordifolia
Miers.

Swaminathan K, Sinha UC, Bhatt RK, Sabata BK, Tavale SS.

Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Bombay.

(1S,2S,3R,4R,5R,8S,10R,12S)/​4/​Hydroxy/​2,3:15,16/​diepoxycleroda/​13( 16),14/​
dieno/​17,12:18,1/​biscarbolactone, C20H22O7, Mr = 374, m.p. = 509/​511 K,
orthorhombic, P2(1)2(1)2(1), a = 9.191 (2), b = 13.8230 (6), c = 26.956 (2) A, V
= 3424.50 A3, Z = 8, Dx = 1.450, Dm (by flotation) = 1.446 g cm/​3, lambda (Cu K
alpha) = 1.5418 A, mu = 8.20 cm/​1, F(000) = 1584, T = 295 K, R = 0.0464, wR =
0.0579 for 3437 observed reflections. The asymmetric unit contains two
molecules. The structure resembles that of a similar compound [Swaminathan,
Sinha, Bhatt & Sabata (1988). Acta Cryst. C44, 1421/​1424] with atom H(15)
replacing the tertiary hydroxyl group at C(8). Atoms H(4) and H(15) are alpha/​
and beta/​oriented respectively at sites C(12) and C(8). The terpene ring A is
locked into a boat conformation by the C(1)/​C(4) lactone bridge. The hydroxyl at
C(4) is involved in hydrogen bonding.

PMID: 2610955 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

80: J Postgrad Med. 1988 Oct;34(4):233/​6.

A comparative study of diuretic effects of Tinospora cordifolia and
hydrochlorothiazide in rats and a preliminary phase I study in human volunteers.

Nayampalli SS, Ainapure SS, Samant BD, Kudtarkar RG, Desai NK, Gupta KC.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3254990 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

81: Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1988 Oct;10(10):639/​44.

Comparative study of immunomodulating activity of Indian medicinal plants,
lithium carbonate and glucan.

Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Department of Pharmacology, Seth G.S. Medical College, Bombay, India.

The protective effects of Asparagus racemosus (AR) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC)
against myelosuppression induced by single doses of cyclophosphamide (CP) have
been previously reported. Presented here are the results of a comparative study
between AR, TC, glucan and lithium carbonate against the myelosuppressive
effects of single and multiple doses of cyclophosphamide in mice.
Cyclophosphamide was administered as a single dose 200 mg/kg subcutaneously to
one group of mice, while a second group received 3 doses of 30 mg/kg
intraperitoneally. Both groups received AR, TC and lithium orally for 15 days
before CP. Glucan was administered intravenously in 3 doses, before
cyclophosphamide in the first group and together with cyclophosphamide in the
second group. In both groups peripheral and differential WBC counts were done
before and after drug treatment and serially after cyclophosphamide injection.
All four drugs produced leucocytosis with neutrophilia. When compared to control
group, all 4 drugs prevented, to varying degrees, leucopenia produced by
cyclophosphamide. We conclude, therefore, that both indigenous plants, AR and
TC, are potent immunostimulants, with effects comparable to lithium and glucan.
They need further evaluation in patients receiving cytotoxic drugs.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3236938 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Indian J Gastroenterol. 1988 Jan;7(1):21/​3.

Immunotherapeutic modification by Tinospora cordifolia of abdominal sepsis
induced by caecal ligation in rats.

Dahanukar SA, Thatte UM, Pai N, More PB, Karandikar SM.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3338823 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

83: J Ethnopharmacol. 1987 Mar/​Apr;19(2):185/​92.

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.

Ikram M, Khattak SG, Gilani SN.

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in
rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane/​ and chloroform/​soluble
extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina
asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant
antipyretic effects were found in the hexane/​ and chloroform/​soluble portions of
Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No
antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum
roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy
toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest
oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.

PMID: 3497307 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

84: J Ethnopharmacol. 1986 Nov;18(2):133/​41.

Immunomodulating agents of plant origin. I: Preliminary screening.

Atal CK, Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A.

The immunobiological activity was investigated of certain medicinal plants
widely used in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine for treatment of
chronic infections and immunological disorders. The effect of an ethanolic
extract of each drug was studied on delayed type hypersensitivity, humoral
responses to sheep red blood cells, skin allograft rejection, and phagocytic
activity of the reticuloendothelial system in mice. Picrorhiza kurroa was found
to be a potent immunostimulant, stimulating both cell/​mediated and humoral
immunity. Tylophora indica, Aconitum heterophyllum and Holarrhena
antidysenterica appeared to stimulate phagocytic function while inhibiting the
humoral component of the immune system. Tinospora cordifolia and Ocimum
gratissimum appeared to improve the phagocytic function without affecting the
humoral or cell/​mediated immune system. Hemidesmus indicus suppressed both the
cell/​mediated and humoral components of the immune system.

PMID: 3560991 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]  


 

Go to Previous Page
 
Go To Top
 
 

 

 

PAGINA INIZIALE | INGREDIENTI | PHYTO PROFILO | I RISULTATI | AYURVEDA | DOMANDE | TESTIMONIANZE | GARANZIA | ORDINATE | WEBMASTERS | DISTRIBUTOR | NEWSLETTER | VIDEO | CHI SIAMO | CONTATTACI
La seguente dichiarazione non é stata valutata dalla FDA Americana. Questo prodotto non intende diagnosticare, trattare, curare o prevenire alcun tipo di malattia. Le informazione contenute in questa pagina web e nelle email vengono fornite a mero scopo conoscitivo e non intendono sostituire consultazioni con professionisti qualificati quali medici, paramedici o fisioterapesti. Le informazioni qui contenute non sono volte a trattare o diagnosticare alcon tipo di patologia ed una consultazione medica é consigliata. Qualora si stia sospettando di aver qualsiasi tipo di malattia o problema di salute una visita medica é necessaria, cosí come prima di iniziare diete, attivitá fisiche o assunzione di medicinali o integratori.

Copyright © 2002-2013, India Herbs. All Rights Reserved.


Doctor Endorsed
Click to verify BBB accreditation and to see a BBB report.
BBB A+ RATED
Halal Singapore