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Estudos Clínicos

Estão apresentados abaixo alguns resumos dos estudos clínicos sobre Jambolan.

  • Nome Botânico: Syzygium Cumini

  • Nome Ayurvédico: Jambu

  • Nome Comum: Jambolan

Syzygium Cumini

Perfil Fitonutriente da Planta


1: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Dec 12; [Epub ahead of print]

Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine
in Brazil.

Braga FG, Bouzada ML, Fabri RL, de O Matos M, Moreira FO, Scio E, Coimbra ES.

Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade
Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20
plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment
of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against
promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi)
and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20
tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active
against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4mug/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum
exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71mug/ml). Concerning
antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan,
and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of
1.25mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited
the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078mg/ml).

PMID: 17234373 [PubMed /​ as supplied by publisher]

2: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007 Jan;40(1):105/​15.

Pharmacological study of anti/​allergic activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels.

Brito FA, Lima LA, Ramos MF, Nakamura MJ, Cavalher/​Machado SC, Siani AC,
Henriques MG, Sampaio AL.

Departamento de Farmacologia Aplicada, Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos,
Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Myrtaceae is a plant family widely used in folk medicine and Syzygium and
Eugenia are among the most important genera. We investigated the anti/​allergic
properties of an aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (SC). HPLC
analysis revealed that hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids are the major
components of the extract. Oral administration of SC (25/​100 mg/kg) in Swiss
mice (20/​25 g; N = 7/group) inhibited paw edema induced by compound 48/80 (50%
inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <or= 0.05) and, to a lesser extent, the allergic paw
edema (23% inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <or= 0.05). SC treatment also inhibited the
edema induced by histamine (58% inhibition; P <or= 0.05) and 5/​HT (52%
inhibition; P <or= 0.05) but had no effect on platelet/​aggregating
factor/​induced paw edema. SC prevented mast cell degranulation and the
consequent histamine release in Wistar rat (180/​200 g; N = 7/group) peritoneal
mast cells (50% inhibition, 1 microg/mL; P <or= 0.05) induced by compound 48/80.
Pre/​treatment of BALB/c mice (18/​20 g; N = 7/group) with 100 mg/kg of the
extract significantly inhibited eosinophil accumulation in allergic pleurisy
(from 7.662 +//​ 1.524 to 1.89 +//​ 0.336 x 10(6)/cavity; P <= 0.001). This effect
was related to the inhibition of IL/​5 (from 70.9 +//​ 25.2 to 12.05 +//​ 7.165
pg/mL) and CCL11/eotaxin levels (from 60.4 +//​ 8.54 to 32.8 +//​ 8.4 ng/mL) in
pleural lavage fluid, using ELISA. These findings demonstrate an anti/​allergic
effect of SC, and indicate that its anti/​edematogenic effect is due to the
inhibition of mast cell degranulation and of histamine and serotonin effects,
whereas the inhibition of eosinophil accumulation in the allergic pleurisy model
is probably due to an impairment of CCL11/eotaxin and IL/​5 production.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17225003 [PubMed /​ in process]

3: Med Mycol. 2006 Nov;44(7):623/​30.

Distribution of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans in decayed trunk
wood of Syzygium cumini trees in north/​western India.

Randhawa HS, Kowshik T, Preeti Sinha K, Chowdhary A, Khan ZU, Yan Z, Xu J, Kumar
A.

Department of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of
Delhi, Delhi, India. hsrandh5@yahoo.co.in

The aim of this study is to report the regional distribution of Cryptococcus.
gattii and Cryptococcus. neoformans in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of
Syzygium cumini trees (Java plum, Indian black berry) investigated in Amritsar
(Panjab), Meerut Cantt. and Bulandshahr (Uttar Pradesh) and Delhi, in
north/​western India. Two hundred and seventeen wood samples collected from 74 S.
cumini trees were investigated. This includes 7 known positive S. cumini trees
in Delhi subjected to a mycological surveillance for perennial colonization by
C. gattii and C. neoformans. Cryptococcus gattii showed the highest prevalence
(89%) in S. cumini trees in Delhi, followed by 27%, 12.5% and 9% prevalence in
Bulandshahr, Amritsar City and Meerut Cantt., respectively. In contrast, C.
neoformans had the highest prevalence (54%) in Amritsar, followed by 44% in
Delhi, 9% in Bulandshahr and 0% in Meerut Cantt. Furthermore, 44% of the S.
cumini trees in Delhi, 9% in Bulandshahr and 8% in Amritsar were concomitantly
colonized by both C. gattii and C. neoformans. A mycological surveillance over
4.8/​5.2 years of 7 selected S. cumini trees in Delhi revealed perennial
colonization by both the Cryptococcus species. In addition, air samples taken
close to the decayed trunk hollows of 4 of the perennially colonized S. cumini
trees contained strains of the C. neoformans species complex. Of a random sample
of 48 isolates serotyped, 26 (54%) were C. neoformans, serotype A, and 22 (46%)
C. gattii, serotype B. Determination of mating type alleles was done in 44 of
the isolates, comprising 31 of C. neoformans, serotype A and 13 of C.gattii,
serotype B. All of them proved to be mating type alpha (MATalpha). The data on
high prevalence, fungal population density, perennial colonization and aerial
isolations indicate that decayed wood in trunk hollows of S. cumini trees is
to/​date the main well documented primary environmental niche of C. gattii and C.
neoformans in north/​western India. Attention is drawn to the likely health
hazard posed by the environmental reservoirs of C. gattii and C. neoformans
occurring in tree trunk hollows in proximity to human and animal habitations.

PMID: 17071556 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

4: J Hazard Mater. 2006 Aug 18; [Epub ahead of print]

Removal of lead from aqueous solution using Syzygium cumini L.: Equilibrium and
kinetic studies.

King P, Rakesh N, Beenalahari S, Prasanna Kumar Y, Prasad VS.

Environmental Pollution Control Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical
Engineering, A.U. College of Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530
003, India.

The biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution by Syzygium cumini L. was
studied in a batch adsorption system as a function of pH, contact time, lead ion
concentration, adsorbent concentration and adsorbent size. The biosorption
capacities and rates of lead ions onto S. cumini L. were evaluated. The
Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich/​Peterson and Temkin adsorption models were applied
to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Biosorption isothermal data
could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model followed by Temkin model with
maximum adsorption capacity of 32.47mg/g of lead ion on S. cumini L. leaves
biomass. The kinetic experimental data were properly correlated with the
second/​order kinetic model.

PMID: 16987604 [PubMed /​ as supplied by publisher]

5: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):16/​9. Epub 2006 Jul 29.

The efficacy of herbal medicines in clinical models: the case of jambolan.

Teixeira CC, Fuchs FD.

Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ICBS, Rua
Sarmento Leite, 550, CEP 90046/​900, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. clauct@ufrgs.br

A large proportion of drugs employed in clinical practice come from plants. The
development of new medical agents is a lengthy and time/​consuming process, with
the identification of extracts with putative therapeutic effects, the isolation
of active ingredients and pre/​clinical studies to investigate their
pharmacological profile. We propose a shortcut in this sequence of procedures,
testing first if the extracts, in the way they are used by patients, have
efficacy in clinical models. On the one hand, this allows to screen plants with
higher chances to identify novel drug candidates; this method may result in
information with immediate interest for patients who take these traditional
preparations, informing them about efficacy, inertia and risks of the product.
In this commentary, we describe our own experience applying this approach to
investigate the potential antihyperglycemic effect of tea and extracts prepared
from leaves of jambolan (Syzygium cumini and Syzygium jambos). The experiments
with normal rats, rats with streptozotocin/​induced diabetes, normal volunteers
and patients with diabetes were all negative in regard to an antihyperglycemic
effect of this plant. In view of the pharmacological inertia of jambolan in the
clinical model, patients and physicians should not rely on its putative
antihyperglycemic effect. This approach may also be applicable to other popular
medicines employed in the management of diabetes and other diseases.

PMID: 16963214 [PubMed /​ in process]

6: Microbiol Res. 2006 Jul 24; [Epub ahead of print]

Production of tannase from Aspergillus ruber under solid/​state fermentation
using jamun (Syzygium cumini) leaves.

Kumar R, Sharma J, Singh R.

Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra/​136 119,
Haryana, India.

Tannase producing fungal strains were isolated from different locations
including garbages, forests and orchards, etc. The strain giving maximum enzyme
yield was identified to be Aspergillus ruber. Enzyme production was studied
under solid state fermentation using different tannin rich substrates like ber
leaves (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun leaves (Syzygium cumini), amla leaves
(Phyllanthus emblica) and jawar leaves (Sorghum vulgaris). Jamun leaves were
found to be the best substrate for enzyme production under solid/​state
fermentation (SSF). In SSF with jamun leaves, the maximum production of tannase
was found to be at 30 degrees C after 96h of incubation. Tap water was found to
be the best moistening agent, with pH 5.5 in ratio of 1:2 (w/v) with substrate.
Addition of carbon and nitrogen sources to the medium did not increase tannase
production. Under optimum conditions as standardized here, the enzyme production
was 69U/g dry substrate. This is the first report on production of tannase by A.
ruber, giving higher yield under SSF with agro/​waste as the substrate.

PMID: 16870410 [PubMed /​ as supplied by publisher]

7: Phytomedicine. 2006 Jun;13(6):434/​41. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

In vitro glucose uptake activity of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini by
activation of Glut/​4, PI3 kinase and PPARgamma in L6 myotubes.

Anandharajan R, Jaiganesh S, Shankernarayanan NP, Viswakarma RA, Balakrishnan A.

Centre For Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai 600025, India.

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of methanolic
extracts of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini on a battery of targets glucose
transporter (Glut/​4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma
(PPARgamma) and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3 kinase) involved in glucose
transport. A. marmelos and S. cumini are anti/​diabetic medicinal plants being
used in Indian traditional medicine. Different solvent extracts extracted
sequentially were analysed for glucose uptake activity at each step and methanol
extracts were found to be significantly active at 100ng/ml dose comparable with
insulin and rosiglitazone. Elevation of Glut/​4, PPARgamma and PI3 kinase by A.
marmelos and S. cumini in association with glucose transport supported the
up/​regulation of glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of cycloheximide on A.
marmelos/​ and S. cumini/​mediated glucose uptake suggested that new protein
synthesis is required for the elevated glucose transport. Current observation
concludes that methanolic extracts of A. marmelos and S. cumini activate glucose
transport in a PI3 kinase/​dependent fashion.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16716914 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

8: J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006 Feb;31(1):1/​5.

The efficacy of folk medicines in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus:
results of a randomized controlled trial of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels.

Teixeira CC, Fuchs FD, Weinert LS, Esteves J.

Department of Pharmacology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Sarmento Leite 500, CEP 90046/​900, Porto
Alegre, Brazil. clauct@ufrgs.br

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a tea prepared from leaves of jambolan,
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, has an antihyperglycaemic effect in patients with
type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with type 2
diabetes mellitus were enrolled in a double/​blind, double/​dummy, randomized
clinical trial. The three experimental groups received a tea prepared from
leaves of S. cumini plus placebo tablets, placebo tea plus glyburide tablets or
placebo tea plus placebo tablets. RESULTS: In total, 27 patients were allocated
to one of the treatment groups and followed for 28 days. Fasting blood glucose
levels decreased significantly with glyburide and did not change with S. cumini
tea or placebo. Body mass index, creatinine, gamma/​glutamyl transferase,
alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine
aminotransferase (SGPT), 24/​h glicosuria, 24/​h proteinuria, triglycerides,
total, low/​density lipoprotein and high/​density lipoprotein cholesterol did not
vary significantly between the different groups. CONCLUSIONS: Tea prepared from
leaves of S. cumini has no hypoglycaemic effect.

Publication Types:
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16476114 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Biosens Bioelectron. 2006 May 15;21(11):2114/​20.

SOS/​red fluorescent protein (RFP) bioassay system for monitoring of
antigenotoxic activity in plant extracts.

Bartolome A, Mandap K, David KJ, Sevilla F 3rd, Villanueva J.

Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines. millet@umbc.edu

An optical antigenotoxicity assay using genetically engineered red fluorescent
bacteria is presented. Exposure of Escherichia coli RS4U to genotoxicants
[mitomycin C (MMC), nalidixic acid (NA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP)] resulted in
phenotypic red fluorescence proportional to the concentration of the inducer.
Except for tannic acid (TA), co/​treatment of the genotoxicant/​activated bacteria
with ascorbic acid (AA) and aqueous plant extracts (Mangifera indica, Psidium
guajava and Syzygium cumini) afforded protection against all three
genotoxicants. TA was effective in suppressing the genotoxic effect of MMC and
HP. The antigenotoxic effect is seen as inhibition of the genotoxicant/​triggered
red fluorescence. The IC50 of the plant extracts and AA varied with the
genotoxicant used. Rec assay verified the antigenotoxic activity of the plant
extracts. Folin/​Ciocalteu test, FeCl3 test and DPPH assay confirmed the presence
of polyphenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins in the plant extracts and the
antioxidant capacity of the plant samples.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16321516 [PubMed /​ in process]

10: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1/​2):129/​31. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Comparative anti/​hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants.

Villasenor IM, Lamadrid MR.

Natural Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of the
Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines. irene.villasenor@up.edu.ph

Validation of the ethnobotanical use of the leaves of Artemisia vulgaris Linn.
(Compositae), Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae), Solanum nigrum Linn.
(Solanaceae), and Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae); stems of Nopalea
cochinellifera (Linn.) Salm/​Dyck (Cactaceae); roots of Imperata cylindrica
Beauv. (Gramineae); dried bark of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) as
anti/​diabetic agents using the oral glucose tolerance test showed that only the
bark of Syzygium cumini and the leaves of Vitex negundo and Eucalyptus
tereticornis exhibited anti/​hyperglycemic activities when fed simultaneously
with glucose. At the same dosages of 5 mg/20 g mouse, Syzygium cumini/​treated
mice showed a significant decrease in blood glucose levels (BGLs) at 30 min
(alpha=0.10) and from 45 min onwards at alpha=0.05. Vitex negundo exhibited
greater anti/​hyperglycemic activity than Eucalyptus tereticornis. Both showed a
significant decrease in BGLs at 60 min but at alpha=0.05 for Vitex negundo and
at alpha=0.07 for Eucalyptus tereticornis. There was no significant lowering in
BGLs for Imperata cylindrica and Solanum nigrum while there was even an increase
in BGLs for Nopalea cochinellifera and Artemisia vulgaris.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16253452 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Jun;56(4):287/​91.

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants.

Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D.

Nutraceutical Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

To identify promising sources of antioxidants, some food and medicinal plants
were studied for total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The leaves,
bark and fruits of Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula
and Terminalia muelleri, the leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and the
seeds of Syzygium cumini were found to have high total phenolic contents
(72.0/​167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6/​90.6%). Leaves of
Eucalyptusglobulus were a rich source of rutin, Moringa oleifera for kaempferol,
aerial parts of Centella asiatica for quercetin, fruits of T. bellerica and T.
chebula for gallic acid, and bark of T. arjuna, leaves and fruits of T.
bellerica and bark, leaves and fruits of T. muelleri for ellagic acid.

PMID: 16096138 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

12: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec 1;102(3):465/​9. Epub 2005 Aug 1.

Effect of the extracts and fractions of Baccharis trimera and Syzygium cumini on
glycaemia of diabetic and non/​diabetic mice.

Oliveira AC, Endringer DC, Amorim LA, das Gracas L Brandao M, Coelho MM.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte MG,
Brazil.

In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts and fractions of
Baccharis trimera and Syzygium cumini on glycaemia of diabetic and non/​diabetic
mice. Crude ethanolic extracts and aqueous and butanolic fractions of the aerial
parts of Baccharis trimera and leaves of Syzygium cumini were evaluated. None of
the extracts or fractions (200 or 2000 mg/kg, per os) induced any effect after
acute administration. Seven/​day treatment with crude ethanolic and aqueous and
butanolic fractions (200/​2000 mg/kg, twice daily, per os) of Syzygium cumini
reduced glycaemia of non/​diabetic mice. However, this effect was associated with
a reduction of food intake and body weight, indicating that this may not be a
genuine hypoglycaemic effect. In diabetic mice, only the aqueous fraction of
Baccharis trimera (2000 mg/kg, twice daily, per os) reduced the glycaemia after
a 7/​day treatment. This effect was not associated with a body weight reduction.
The results suggest that Baccharis trimera presents a potential antidiabetic
activity and indicate that food intake and body weight must be determined when
evaluating metabolic parameters after prolonged administration of plant
extracts.

PMID: 16055289 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

13: J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2005 Mar;46(1):59/​65.

Influence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to
different doses of gamma/​radiation.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India).
gc.jagetia@kmc.manipal.edu

The radioprotective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of jamun seeds (SCE)
was studied in mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. The mice were
injected with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 or 160 mg/kg body weight
of SCE, before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma radiation, to select the optimum dose
of radiation protection. The 80 mg/kg SCE was found to offer highest protection,
therefore, further studies were carried out using this dose. The drug was more
effective when administered through the intraperitoneal route at equimolar doses
than the oral route. Since higher survival was observed for the i.p. route
(50%), than the oral route (29.2%), all other studies were carried out by
injecting SCE intraperitoneally. The mice treated with 80 mg/kg body weight SCE
intraperitoneally before exposure to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 Gy of gamma radiation
showed reduction in the symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality at all
exposure doses and caused a significant increase in the animal survival when
compared with the concurrent double distilled water (DDW) + irradiation group.
The SCE treatment protected mice against the gastrointestinal as well as bone
marrow deaths and the DRF was found to be 1.24.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15802860 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Med Mycol. 2005 Feb;43(1):67/​71.

Efficacy of swabbing versus a conventional technique for isolation of
Cryptococcus neoformans from decayed wood in tree trunk hollows.

Randhawa HS, Kowshik T, Khan ZU.

Department of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of
Delhi, Delhi, India. hsrandh5@yahoo.co.in

The efficacy of swabbing versus a conventional sedimentation technique was
evaluated for sampling of decayed wood in tree trunk hollows for isolation of
Cryptococcus neoformans. Of 52 samples of decayed wood, bark or other plant
debris originating from 35 living trees, 42 wood samples yielded C. neoformans.
The positive samples included 40 collected from 31 Syzygium cumini trees growing
along roadsides in Old Delhi, whereas the remaining two were from inside tree
trunk fissures of Ficus religiosa in a New Delhi locality. The number of wood
samples found positive by swabbing was 40 (95%) as opposed to 32 (76%) by the
conventional technique, and this difference was statistically significant (P <
0.01). Also, the conventional technique showed 24% false/​negative results, which
was in striking contrast to only 5% by swabbing. Furthermore, swabbing yielded a
significantly higher C. neoformans mean colony count than did the conventional
technique (P < 0.005), thus highlighting greater efficacy of the former
technique. The overall prevalence of C. neoformans in the S. cumini trees
investigated was 84% (26/31 trees) which is the highest as yet reported from any
tree species in India. Varietal identification and serotyping was done with 33
of the C. neoformans isolates, 31 of which came from 23 tree trunk hollows of S.
cumini and two from the tree trunk fissures of F. religiosa. Among the S. cumini
isolates, 26 were identified as C. neoformans var. gattii (all serotype B except
two untypeable ones) and five as C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype A (= C.
neoformans var. grubii). Both of the F. religiosa isolates belonged to C. n.
var. neoformans, serotype A. Being a more efficacious, simple, less
time/​consuming and less hazardous technique, swabbing is recommended for wider
use in order to further elucidate the ecology of C. neoformans.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15712609 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Diabetes Care. 2004 Dec;27(12):3019/​20.

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: results of a
randomized, double/​blind, double/​dummy, controlled trial.

Teixeira CC, Weinert LS, Barbosa DC, Ricken C, Esteves JF, Fuchs FD.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Letter
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15562231 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003;29(3/​4):253/​61.

The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini
Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague/​Dawley
rats.

Ramirez RO, Roa CC Jr.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines,
Ermita, Manila, Philippines. cvlab@cm.upm.edu.ph

The gastroprotective effect of quantified tannins (13.4%) from Syzygium cumini
was determined. Gastric mucosal damage was induced in sixty eight rats by oral
gavage administration of HCl/ethanol solution. For macroscopic and microscopic
studies, 30 rats were divided into three groups consisting of a negative
control, an Omeprazole group and a Tannins group. There was no significant
difference in the number, size and surface area of macroscopic lesions between
the three groups. Microscopic examination using Best's Ulcer Staging Index
showed that Tannins had a very significant decrease in gastric mucosal damage
with p<0.01. Average lymphocyte populations in the three groups showed no
significant difference, although both the Tannins and Omeprazole group had fewer
lymphocytes. Thirty/​eight rats were studied for the amount of free radicals
present after induction of gastric damage. A dose which consisted of 20.0 g
tannins/kg rat weight showed significantly lower stomach free radical
concentrations. These findings suggest that tannins extracted from S. cumini
have gastroprotective and anti/​ulcerogenic effects.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 14724349 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Med Mycol. 2003 Jun;41(3):199/​209.

Decayed wood of Syzygium cumini and Ficus religiosa living trees in Delhi/New
Delhi metropolitan area as natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans.

Randhawa HS, Kowshik T, Khan ZU.

Department of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of
Delhi, Delhi/​110 007, India. vpci@delnet.ren.nic.in

The isolation is reported of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii and C. n. var.
neoformans from decayed wood inside trunk hollows of Syzygium cumini and of C.
n. var. neoformans from Ficus religiosa trees in the Delhi/New Delhi
metropolitan area. Fourteen of sixty/​six (21%) S. cumini trees investigated
proved to be positive, seven for each variety. The two varieties never
co/​occurred in the same hollow. C. n. var. neoformans was also isolated from
three of seventeen Ficus religiosa/​trees. Two of these isolates originated from
decayed wood and one from bark. The C. n. var. gattii and C. n. var. neoformans
isolates belonged to serotype B and serotype A, respectively. The data strongly
supported colonization of S. cumini by both varieties and of F. religiosa trees
by C. n. var. neoformans. Evidence of this was found by repeated isolations. For
example, in 36/44 (82%) samples for C. n. var. gattii and 22/27 (81%) samples
for C. n. var. neoformans, and by a high population density in the tested wood
debris (maximally 6 x 10(5) colony/​forming units per gram [c.f.u./g] for C. n.
var. gattii and 8 x 10(4) c.f.u./g for C. n. var. neoformans). No eucalypt trees
were seen near the positive S. cumini and F. religiosa trees. The densities of
C. neoformans in these trees exceeded those found previously in Eucalyptus
camaldulensis and in other tree species more rarely reported to be sources of C.
neoformans in India. S. cumini and F. religiosa appear not to have been reported
to date as sources for either C. n. var. gattii or C n. var. neoformans. Our
results add to the recently emerging evidence that the natural habitat of C. n.
var. gattii and C. n. var. neoformans is not specific to woody or other debris
of particular tree species, but instead is more generalized.

PMID: 12964711 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Nahrung. 2003 Jun;47(3):181/​5.

Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Syzygium cumini
(Jamun) in mice exposed to a lethal dose of gamma/​irradiation.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal/​576 119, Kamataka,
India. gc.jagetia@kmc.manipal.edu

The effects of various concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 80 mg/kg
body weight (b.wt.) of the leaf extracts of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Eugenia
cumini (SCE, black plum, Jamun, family Myrtaceae) on the radiation/​induced
sickness and mortality in mice exposed to 10 Gy gamma/​irradiation were studied.
The treatment of mice with different doses of SCE, consecutively for five days
before irradation, delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of
radiation sickness when compared with the nondrug/​treated irradiated controls.
All doses of SCE provied protection against the gastrointestinal death
increasing the survival by 66.66% after treatment with 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg SCE
versus a 12% survival in the irradiated control group (oil + irradiation).
Similarly, SCE provided protection against the radiation/​induced bone marrow
death in mice treated with 10/​60 mg/kg b.wt. of SCE. However, the best
protection was obtained for 30 mg/kg b.wt. SCE, where the number of, survivors
after 30 days post/​irradiation was highest (41.66%) when compared with the other
doses of SCE.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12866620 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1178/​82.

Hypoglycaemic effect of defatted seeds and water soluble fibre from the seeds of
Syzygium cumini (Linn.) skeels in alloxan diabetic rats.

Pandey M, Khan A.

Department of Biochemistry, LIT Premises, Nagpur University, Amravati Road,
Nagpur 440010, India.

The effect of feeding orally along with diet of different fractions obtained
from the seeds of S. cumini was tried on fasting blood glucose and glucose
tolerance in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. The quantitative determination
showed that S. cumini seeds contained 40% of water soluble gummy fibre and 15%
of water insoluble neutral detergent fibre (NDF). This study demonstrated that
feeding for 21 days of the diets containing 15% powdered unextracted (intact)
seeds containing water soluble gummy fibre, 15% powdered defatted seeds from
which lipid and saponins were removed only and 6% water soluble gummy fibre
isolated from S. cumini seeds significantly lowered blood glucose levels and
improved oral glucose tolerance whereas feeding of the diets containing 15%
powdered degummed S. cumini seeds from which water soluble gummy fibre was
removed but which contained neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 2.25% water
insoluble neutral detergent fibre (NDF) isolated from S. cumini seeds neither
lowered blood glucose levels nor improved oral glucose tolerance in both normal
and diabetic rats. These observations indicate that the hypoglycaemic effect of
S. cumini seeds was due to water soluble gummy fibre and also that water
insoluble neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and other constituents of the seeds had
no significant hypoglycaemic effects.

PMID: 12693701 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;46(4):482/​6.

Inhibitory role of Syzygium cumini on autacoid/​induced inflammation in rats.

Muruganandan S, Pant S, Srinivasan K, Chandra S, Tandan SK, Lal J, Prakash RV.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute,
Izatnagar/​243 122.

The ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini bark has been reported to possess
anti/​inflammatory activity in our previous studies. The present study is an
attempt to elucidate the anti/​inflammatory activity of S. Cumini bark against
inflammation induced by individual autacoid insult. Histamine (1 mg/ml), 5/​HT (1
mg/ml), bradykinin (0.02 mg/ml) and PGE2 (0.001 mg/ml) were used as
inflammogens. One of these agents (0.1 ml) was injected s.c. into the right hind
paw of each rat. The ethanolic extract of S. cumini bark was tested at the doses
of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The results indicated the anti/​inflammatory
activity of S. cumini bark in histamine, 5/​HT and PGE2/​induced rat paw oedema.
However, there was no such significant inhibition of oedema volume observed in
bradykinin/​induced rat paw oedema at any dose level. Thus, it is concluded that
S. cumini exhibits inhibitory role on inflammatory response to histamine, 5/​HT
and PGE2.

PMID: 12683225 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Fitoterapia. 2002 Aug;73(5):414/​6.

Antibacterial activity of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum leaf
essential oils.

Shafi PM, Rosamma MK, Jamil K, Reddy PS.

Department of Chemistry, Calicut University, 673 635, Kerala, India.
shafimuham@rediffmail.com

The leaf essential oils of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum were
tested for their antibacterial property. The activity of S. cumini essential oil
was found to be good, while that of S. travancoricum was moderate.

PMID: 12165339 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Toxicol Lett. 2002 Jun 7;132(1):19/​25.

Syzygium cumini (Jamun) reduces the radiation/​induced DNA damage in the cultured
human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a preliminary study.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, 576 119, Karnataka,
Manipal, India. gc.jagetia@kmc.manipal.edu

The effects of various concentrations (0.0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and
100 microg/ml) of the leaf extract of Syzygium cumini Linn. or Eugenia cumini
(SC; black plum, Jamun, family Myrtaceae) was studied on the alteration in the
radiation/​induced micronuclei formation in the cultured human peripheral blood
lymphocytes. Treatment of lymphocytes to various concentrations of SC resulted
in a dose dependent increase in the micronuclei/​induction, especially after
25/​100 microg/ml extract. The exposure of human lymphocytes to various
concentrations of SC extract before 3 Gy gamma/​irradiation resulted in a
significant decline in the micronuclei/​induction at all the drug doses when
compared with the non/​drug treated irradiated cultures. A nadir in MNBNC
frequency was observed for 12.5 microg/ml drug concentration, where the MNBNC
frequency was approximately fourfold lower than that of the non/​drug treated
irradiated cultures. Therefore, this dose may be considered as an optimum dose
for radiation protection. Our study demonstrates that the leaf extract of S.
cumini, a plant traditionally used to treat diabetic disorders protects against
the radiation/​induced DNA damage.

PMID: 12084616 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Fitoterapia. 2001 May;72(4):369/​75.

Anti/​inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini bark.

Muruganandan S, Srinivasan K, Chandra S, Tandan SK, Lal J, Raviprakash V.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian veterinary Research Institute,
/​243 122 (U.P.), Izatnagar, India.

The ethanolic extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini was investigated for its
anti/​inflammatory activity in animal models. The extract did not show any sign
of toxicity up to a dose of 10.125 g/kg, p.o. in mice. Significant
anti/​inflammatory activity was observed in carrageenin (acute),
kaolin/​carrageenin (subacute), formaldehyde (subacute)/​induced paw oedema and
cotton pellet granuloma (chronic) tests in rats. The extract did not induce any
gastric lesion in both acute and chronic ulcerogenic tests in rats. Thus, the
present study demonstrated that S. cumini bark extract has a potent
anti/​inflammatory action against different phases of inflammation without any
side effect on gastric mucosa.

PMID: 11395258 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

24: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1/​2):343/​7.

Absence of antihyperglycemic effect of jambolan in experimental and clinical
models.

Teixeira CC, Rava CA, Mallman da Silva P, Melchior R, Argenta R, Anselmi F,
Almeida CR, Fuchs FD.

Departament of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and
Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude,
U.F.R.G.S. Rua Sarmento Leite, 500/202 CEP 90.046/​900, RS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

The use of alternative therapies to treat diabetes, including teas prepared with
different vegetables, is widespread in Brazil. In Porto Alegre, a southern city
of Brazil, the tea prepared from leaves of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels or S.
jambos (L.) Alst has been report to be used frequently by diabetic patients. We
investigated the postulated antihyperglycemic effect of the S. cumini (L.)
Skeels in three experiments. In the first, a randomized, parallel, placebo
controlled trial, tea prepared from leaves of S. cumini did not present any
antihyperglycernic effect in 30 non/​diabetic young volunteers submitted to a
glucose blood tolerance test. In the animal experiments, we tested the effect of
increasing doses of the crude extract prepared from leaves of S. cumini
administrated for 2 weeks, on the post/​prandial blood glucose level of normal
rats and rats with streptozotocin/​induced diabetes mellitus. The treatment did
not produce any antihyperglycernic effect in both models. These results do not
rule out hypoglycemic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but
strongly suggest that, for a while, the jambolan can not be recommended as an
antihyperglycemic treatment.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 10904184 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

25: J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 May;56(3):209/​13.

The effect of Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels on post/​prandial blood glucose levels
in non/​diabetic rats and rats with streptozotocin/​induced diabetes mellitus.

Teixeira CC, Pinto LP, Kessler FH, Knijnik L, Pinto CP, Gastaldo GJ, Fuchs FD.

Departmento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

This study was undertaken to investigate whether a tea prepared from Syzygium
cumini, reported to be used by diabetics in Porto Alegre, Brazil, might have an
antihyperglycemic effect in experimental models. Teas prepared from leaves and
seeds of S. cumini, in concentrations ranging from 2/​64 g/l, were administered,
as water substitute for 14/​95 days, to 16 groups with 8/​9 normal albino rats and
to four groups with 10/​12 rats with streptozotocin/​induced diabetes mellitus.
Post/​prandial blood glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method
on blood samples obtained by decapitation. None of the tea concentration had any
detectable antihyperglycemic effect either in normal or in diabetic rats,
suggesting that this plant, prepared in a manner similar to that employed by
humans, is destitute of an antihyperglycemic effect.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9201610 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Environ Pollut. 1989;57(2):97/​102.

Effect of chlorine pollution on three fruit tree species at Ranoli near Baroda,
India.

Vijayan R, Bedi SJ.

Ecology and Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, The M.S.
University of Baroda, Baroda/​390 002, India.

This paper describes the effect of chlorine pollution from an alkalies and
chemical plant at Ranoli, near Baroda, on three tropical fruit tree
species/​Mangifera indica L. (mango) Manilkara hexandra Dubard. (rayan) and
Syzygium cumini Skeels (Jamun). As compared to controls growing in a less
polluted area, trees growing close to the plant showed reduced mean leaf area, a
higher percentage of leaf area damaged, a reduction in fruit yield, chlorophyll
pigments, protein and carbohydrate content, and higher accumulation of chloride
in the foliar tissues. The accumulation of pollutaant, chloride, in the foliar
tissues was very high in mango and jamun. Based on the degree of damage to the
plants, the species studied were arranged in decreasing order of their
sensitivity to chlorine pollution/​mango, jamun and rayan.

PMID: 15092455 [PubMed]

27: Planta Med. 1988 Dec;54(6):572.

Isolation of Bergenin from Barks of Syzygium cumini.

Kopanski L, Schnelle G.

Schaper & Brummer GmbH und Co. KG, D/​3320 Salzgitter 61, Federal Republic of
Germany.

PMID: 17265363 [PubMed /​ in process]

28: Planta Med. 1975 Dec;28(4):346/​52.

Chemical constituents of the seeds and bark of Syzygium cumini.

Bhatia IS, Bajaj KL.

PMID: 1208683 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Biochem J. 1972 Jun;128(1):56P.

Tannins in black/​plum (Syzygium cumini L.) seeds.

Bhatia IS, Bajaj KL.

PMID: 5085637 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]


 

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